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# rectifiers

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rectifiers

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### rectifiers

1. 1. Unit 2- Application of Diodes
2. 2. Contents  Design of Rectifier Circuits. Half Wave Rectification Full Wave Rectifier Filter Ripple Voltage and Diode Current  Clippers.  Clampers.  Voltage Doubler Circuit.  Zener Diode Circuits  Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator  Photodiode Circuit  LED Circuit
3. 3. Rectifiers
4. 4. Block diagram of Power Supply
5. 5. Rectifier • A circuit that converts ac voltage of main supply into pulsating dc voltage using one or more pn junction diodes. • Half Wave Rectifier • Full Wave Rectifier • Center Tap Rectifier • Bridge Rectifier
6. 6. Half Wave Rectifier Circuit Diagram
7. 7. Operation of Half Wave Rectifier
8. 8. Waveform of Half Wave Rectifier
9. 9. Average DC load Current (IDC )
10. 10. Average DC voltage (Edc)
12. 12. DC Power Delivered to the load
13. 13. AC input power from transformer secondary
14. 14. How effectively a rectifier converts ac into dc: • Rectifier Efficiency (η) • Ripple Factor (r)
15. 15. Rectifier Efficiency (η) Tells us the percentage of total input ac power that is converted into useful dc output power. η = 40.6 % Under best conditions (no diode loss) only 40.6% of the ac input power is converted into dc power. The rest remains as the ac power in the load
16. 16. Ripple Factor Measure of purity of the dc output of a rectifier Defined as the ratio of ac component of the output wave to the dc component in the wave
17. 17. Ripple Factor This indicates that the ripple content in the output are 1.211 times the dc component. i.e. 121.1 % of dc component. The ripple factor is very high. Therefore a half wave rectifier is a poor converter of ac to dc. The ripple factor is minimized using filter circuits along with the rectifier.
18. 18. Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) PIV = Em Diode must be selected based on the PIV rating and the circuit specification.
19. 19. Disadvantage of HWR •The ripple factor of half wave rectifier is 1.21, which is quite high. •The output contains lot of ripples •The maximum theoretical efficiency is 40%. •The practical value will be quite less than this. •This indicates that HWR is quite inefficient.
20. 20. Center Tap Rectifier Half WaveRectifier
21. 21. Working of Center Tap Rectifier Current Flow during the positive half of the input cycle Current Flow during the negative half of the input cycle
22. 22. Waveforms
23. 23. Average DC current Average (DC) Voltage