It is a type of Murcchana of Parada.
Rasa sindura is Sagandha, Sagni Murcchna of
It can be prepared by both Bahirdhuma and
Antardhuma vidhi .
Specific arrangement of heating in a specially
designed “Kachakupi” in Valuka Yantra.
Apart from Kachkupi, egg shell or a funnel
can be used and in place of Valuka yantra ,
Ishtika yantra, Kacchapa yantra, Bhudhar
yantra can be used.
Gradual increment in heating pattern.
Sublimation process is taking place as
converting a solid directly into vapors and
condensing the vapors into solid state i;e
R.P.Su – 3/ 10-14
Rasendra Chintamani- 2nd chapter
A.P- 1/397-398 ; 1/409-416; 1/426-427; 431-
R.T- 6/5-6 ;
R.T- 6 / 168-176
R.Y.Sa- 2 part
B.R- 35/11 ; 54/124-132; 38/13-15
R.Chandansu- Ut.Kh, vataroga Chi 284-
S.B.M.M- 5 Guccha
AFI- Part 1, second edition ( 10
kupipakwa preparations are given )
7. • Sagandha- Prepared with the use of Gandhaka e.g. Makaradhwaja, Rasa
• Nirgandha- Prepared without the use of Gandhaka e.g. Rasakarpura, Rasa
• Antardhuma- is applied in the beginning and the vapors are not allowed to
escape e.g. Rasasindura etc
• Bahirdhuma -- is applied after burning of sulphur e.g. Vyadhiharana Rasa ,
Rasa Sindura, Shila sindura, Etc.
• Kanthastha- The finished product is deposited at the neck e.g.
Makaradhwaja, Rasa sindura
• Talastha- The product is obtained from the bottom of the Kupi e.g.
Sameerapannaga, Rasa, Swarna Vanga.
• Ubhayastha- Final products obtained from both the sites e.g.
Sameerapannaga Rasa, Hinguliya Manikya Rasa.
9. Collection of necessary
Preparation of Kupi .
Filling of Kajjali to Kupi.
Placing Kupi in Valuka
10. Preparation of Kupi -- Wrapping glass bottle with mud smeared cloth – 7
layers should be done.
Filling of Kajjali to Kupi -- Fill 1/3rd part so that there should be free space
inside Kupi for melting and boiling of Kajjali and also for sublimation of compound
which is going to condensed and deposited in neck part .
Placing Kupi in Valuka Yantra – Placed at the centre part of the Valuka
yantra so that to get uniform temperature .
11. Heating schedule
Observation of fumes and flame
Corking of Kupi mouth
(madanmudra/ Hatamudra )
12. Heating pattern- Kramagni Paka
General temperature pattern in EMF
for Kupi-Pakwa Preparations is given
Mild ( Mrdu) -- 150°C – 250°C,
Moderate(Madhyam) –250°C – 450°C
Higher (Tivragni) -- 450°C-650°C
Preparation of Rasasindura (R.T)
मृदुवह्निना च पूवं ह्नवबुधो ह्नियाममात्रम्|
तीव्रवह्नियोगाह्निपचेद् ह्नियाममात्रम् |
ह्नसकतायन्त्त्रे त्वहोरात्रकम् |
जीर्णगन्त्धे रसे जाते क्रमागतह्नदनक्रमैः ।
Shadguna Rasa sindura
वासरसप्तकं च ह्नवह्नधना ह्नसन्त्दुरकं चाहरेत्।
14. Shalaka Sanchalana:
Tapta shalaka- to burn extra sulphur deposited as neck part of kupi.
Sheeta shalaka- to know the state of kajjali i.e. powder form /
melted / boiling / sublimation stage of product .
Observation of fumes and flame :
Fumes – Colour-- Yellow / orange / bluish / white
Odour.-- Differs acc to ingredients -- like
sulphur & arsenic
Flames – timing of appearance of flame, its colour and duration
should be noted .
15. Corking of Kupi:
Before corking observe for following:
Absence of fumes and flames
Copper coin test .
Sheeta shalaka test
Appearance of redness at the bottom of Kupi ( Arunotpala prakasham ;
Adherence of the silvery shine particles .
16. Removal of Kupi from Valuka/ EMF
• Breaking of Kupi
Collection of product
• Examination of product
Care should be taken –
sometimes kupi may break.
Breaking of Kupi
Scrap and remove the layers
of Kupi .
A thread soaked in spirit
should be tied around the
middle of Kupi and ignited
Kept horizontally, rotate the
Kupi to burn thread, then
wrap with wet cloth.
17. Collection of product
Kanthasta / Talastha/ Ubhayastha
Rasasindur, Malla sindur –
Swarna vanga – Talastha
Makaradhwaja, hinguliya manikya
Rationale of Kantastha/ Talastha
collection of product .
Process of sublimation occur in
Parada and Gandhaka get sublimated at
the temperature provided during process
and get collected at the neck of the bottle.
Metals having higher melting and boiling
points like Copper, tin, gold get deposited
at the bottom as in Swarna vanga, Tamra
sindura, Makardhwaja etc.
18. Melting point / deg
Boiling point / deg
Mercury -38.89 356.7
Sulphur 115.21 444.6
Copper 1084 2562
Gold 1064.78 3243
Tin 449.47 2602
Arsenic trisulphide 310 707
Arsenic disulphide 307
Arsenic trioxide 312 465
There are four terms:
Latent heat of fusion : solid Liquid
Heat of vaporization : Liquid Gas
24. TALA SINDURA
Dose : ½ to 1 Ratti.
Dose : ½ to 1 Ratti
Dose : ½ to 1 Ratti.
1 Ratti with Nagavalli
25. RASAPUSHPA RASAKARPURA
Dose: (R.T 44-46)
For internal administration- ½ - 2 ½ Ratti
For Virechana – 2 ½ Ratti
Hikka – 1/8 Ratti
Phiranga – 1/4 Ratti
In infants as purgative- 1/2 Ratti
Take an iron pan– pour a
water drop over it– then
sprinkle pinch of
Rasapushpa- remove the
water after sometime– if
Dose : (R.T 6/ 76 -78)
1/64- 1/32 Ratti
For internal administration – Rasakarpura
+ Navsadara( 5 ratti each) mix in 60 Tola cold
water – 30 to 60 drops should be used.
27. PURNA CHANDRODAYA . ( R.T.S - S.P.P )
Ashta samskarita Parada- 20 Tola
Shuddha gandhaka- 2000 tola
Swarna bhasma – 2 tola
Abhraka Satva- 5 tola
Swarna makshika Satva- 5 tola
100 times Gandhaka Jarana.
It took 2 years for completion of whole process.
Dose : ¼ to 1 Ratti
(twice daily )
Bubhukshita Parada- 16 Tola
Shuddha gandhaka- 32tola
Swarna varka – 2 tola
Uses: same as of Purna chandrodaya
Dose: 1 to 3 Ratti; (twice daily)
as Hrdya : ½ to 1 Ratti ( 2 to 3
times a day )
35. Kupipakwa Rasayanas are the pharmaceutical preparation obtained by sublimation of
Parada , Gandhaka and other metals, requiring specific heating pattern in a specific
The heating pattern is gradual increment of heat in a controlled manner for a particular
time duration as described in the classical texts.
The reason behind this heating pattern might be the desired compound formation.
The mercury, sulphur and arsenicals due to their low melting point, less latent of fusion
and heat of vaporization, are deposited at the neck of the Kupi, while metals such as
copper, Tin, gold remain at bottom of the kupi.
The chemical bonding between the atoms of a metal is strong, hence require large
amount of energy to melt and boil, except mercury.
Sometimes Kalmi sora (KNO3 ) is added in the preparations like Swarna vanga
because it enchances the oxidation thus the desirble product can be obtained.
36. Several research articles have been published on characterisation of Kupi-Pakwa
preparations , specially Rasa sindura .
Cinical trails are still lacking to be published to propagate the effectiveness of such
miraculous drugs worldwide.
But the Kupipakwa Rasayanas are being successfully used by many Ayurvedic physicians
to treat Vatavyadhis , Shwasa rogas, degenerative disorders, geriatrics, as aphrodisiacs ,
Many vaidyas add Rasa sindura in most of their prescriptions claiming to enhance the
efficacy of other drugs.
There is a lot to be explored in this arena of Kupi- pakwa preparation.
More and more double blind randomized clinical trails to be done to proof their
effectiveness and for that good quality medicines should be available in the market.
37. Sharma S., Rasatarangini, Hindi commentary by Shastri K. N., Motilal Banarasidas, Delhi, 2000.
Anonymous. Rasatantrasara Va Siddha Prayoga Samgraha. Ajmer: Krishna Gopal Ayurved Bhavan;
Madhava Upadhyaya, Ayurveda Prakash, 1/137, Arthavabodhini Sanskrit commentary,
Suspashtavabodhini hindi commentary by Gururaj Sharma Mishra, Reprint ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha
Dhunduknath, Rasendra Chintamani, Siddhiprada hindi commentary by Siddhi Nandan Mishra, Reprint
ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia Publication Prayogika; 2006. 8/21, p. 112.
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Ramanan N, Lahiri D, Rajput P, Varma RC, Arun A, Muraleedharan TS, Pandey KK, Maiti N, Jha SN,
Sharma SM. Investigating structural aspects to understand the putative/claimed non-toxicity of the Hg-
based Ayurvedic drug Rasasindura using XAFS. Journal of synchrotron radiation. 2015 Sep
Saba K, Rajnala N, Veeraiah P, Tiwari V, Rana RK, Lakhotia SC, Patel AB. Energetics of excitatory and
inhibitory neurotransmission in aluminum chloride model of Alzheimer’s disease: reversal of behavioral
and metabolic deficits by Rasa Sindoor. Frontiers in molecular neuroscience. 2017 Oct 17;10:323.
38. Mashru M, Galib R, Shukla VJ, Ravishankar B, Prajapati PK. Effect of Sameera
Pannaga Rasa (arsenomercurial formulation) in the management of Tamaka Shwasa
(bronchial asthma)-Randomized double blind clinical study. Ayu. 2013
Dwivedi V, Tripathi BK, Mutsuddi M, Lakhotia SC. Ayurvedic Amalaki Rasayana
and Rasa-Sindoor suppress neurodegeneration in fly models of Huntington’s and
Alzheimer’s diseases. Curr. Sci. 2013 Dec 25;104:1711-23
Sarkar PK, Mehta NJ, Prajapati PK. Chemistry of Kupipakwa Rasayanas–A
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MALLASINDURA (MSL) ON LIVER FUNCTION PARAMETERS OF RAT
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