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Mems in medical technology

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Mems in medical technology

  1. 1. MEMS APPLICATIONS IN MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY BY SATYANARAYANA TAMMANA
  2. 2. Role of MEMS and nanotechnology in medical technologies .
  3. 3. . First of all, what is MEMS ? • MEMS stands for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. • It is a technique of combining Electrical and Mechanical components together on a chip, to produce a system of miniature dimensions .. • By miniature, we mean dimensions less than the thickness of human hair !!!!
  4. 4. . Benefits of MEMS and nanotechnology in medical applications • Small volume of reagent samples (like blood), required for analysis. • Low power consumption, hence lasts longer on the same battery. • Less invasive, hence less painful. • Integration permits a large number of systems to be built on a single chip. • Batch processing can lower costs significantly. • Existing IC technology can be used to make these devices. • Silicon, used in most MEMS devices, interferes lesser with body tissues.
  5. 5. . Can MEMS devices really replace the existing medical devices ? • A lot of MEMS medical devices have been developed that are much more sensitive and robust than their conventional counterparts. • Market trends for MEMS medical devices show a promising future ahead. http://www.sensorsmag.com/articles/0497/medical/main.shtml www.edmond-wheelchair.com/ bp_monitors3.htm
  6. 6. . MEMS and endoscopy • What is endoscopy ? • A diagnostic procedure which involves the introduction of a flexible device into the lower or upper gastrointestinal tract for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. • Conventional endoscopes • Can be used to view only the first third of the small intestine. • Require sedation of patient • Is an uncomfortable procedure http://www.surgical-optics.com/new_autoclavable_rigid_endoscope.htm http://www.mobileinstrument.com
  7. 7. . MEMS redefines endoscopy with “Lab on a Pill” Size : 35mm Components of lab on a pill • Digital camera (CMOS Technology) • Light source • Battery • Radio transmitter • Sensors (MEMS Technology)  Requires no sedation  Can show a view of the entire small intestine  Can aid in early detection of colon cancer http://www.spie.org/web/oer/august/aug00/cover2.html
  8. 8. Shekhar Bhansali bhansali@eng.usf.edu
  9. 9. .
  10. 10. . Working of this magic pill ! • The pill is intended to be swallowed like any normal pill. • Once within the body, the pill's sensors sample body fluids and pick up "meaningful patient data" such as temperature, dissolved oxygen levels and pH. • The pill is expected to retrieve all data over a 12-hour period and disposed off, once excreted. • This data is transmitted wirelessly to a card attached to the wrist of the individual.
  11. 11. . Micro-surgical tools • Present day surgeons operate within a domain restricted by the mobility and control of the surgical tools at hand. • MEMS surgical tools provide the flexibility and accuracy to perform precision surgery.
  12. 12. . MEMS driven scalpels • Precise control of the scalpel is an important requirement in any surgery. • MEMS piezoelectric motor help to accurately position the scalpel. • MEMS pressure sensors incorporated on the scalpel, can help to measure the force exerted on the area operated upon. Accordingly, the scalpel can he handled. http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~jjudy/publications/conference/msc_2000_judy.pdf
  13. 13. Shekhar Bhansali bhansali@eng.usf.edu
  14. 14. . Ultrasonic MEMS cutting tool • These tools make use of piezoelectric materials attached to the cutter. • Consist of microchannels to flush out the fluid and debris while cutting. • Can be used to cut tough tissues, like the hardened lenses of patients with cataract http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~jjudy/publications/conference/msc_2000_judy.pdf
  15. 15. Shekhar Bhansali bhansali@eng.usf.edu
  16. 16. . Skin Resurfacing • Skin resurfacing is a form of cosmetic surgery that is often used to aesthetically enhance the appearance of wrinkles, skin lesions, pigmentation irregularities, moles, roughness, and scars. Conventional resurfacing techniques involve the use of : • Dermabraders – devices or tools used in plastic surgery. • Chemical peels – chemicals such as glycolic acid.
  17. 17. . MEMS skin resurfacing tools • Though still not commercially available, MEMS tools have been found to overcome many drawbacks present in the conventional techniques. • They can be used to remove raised skin lesions as well as lesions upto certain depths. • These MEMS structures are packaged onto rotary elements and used over the affected areas. • The debris can then be sucked out using a suction pump. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12787986&dopt=Abstract
  18. 18. . Micro/Nano Robots in medical field • These are micro/nano scale devices capable of treating and eliminating medical problems. • Such problems may arise due to the accumulation of unwanted organic substances, which interfere with the normal body functions, such as : – Tumors – Life threatening blood clots – Accumulation of scar tissue – Arterial blockage – Localized sites of infection.
  19. 19. . MEMS and drug delivery
  20. 20. . MEMS microneedles • MEMS enables hundreds of hollow microneedles to be fabricated on a single patch of area, say a square centimeter. • This patch is applied to the skin and drug is delivered to the body using micropumps. • These micropumps can be electronically controlled to allow specific amounts of the drug and also deliver them at specific intervals. • Microneedles are too small to reach and stimulate the nerve endings, and hence cause no pain to the body. gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/ newsrelease/NEEDLES.htm http://www.pharmtech.com/pharmtech/data/articlestandard/pharmtech/022004/80733/article.pdf
  21. 21. . Smart Pill • A MEMS device that can be implanted in the human body. • Consists of – biosensors – Battery – Control circuitry – Drug reservoirs • The biosensors sense the substance to be measured, say insulin. • Once this quantity falls below a certain amount required by the body, the pill releases the drug. http://mmadou.eng.uci.edu/
  22. 22. . Challenges for MEMS medical sensors • Biocompatibility remains the biggest hurdle for MEMS medical devices. • Life of the device. • Retrieving data out of the device. • Resist drifting along with the body fluids.
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