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  1. 1. EMBRYOLOGY CVS – PART I CVS Embryology 1
  2. 2. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • 1st system to function in embryo • Circulation of blood : 3rd week • Derived from mesenchyme CVS Embryology 1
  3. 3. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Mesenchymal cells in splanchnic mesoderm proliferate & form cell clusters : Angiogenic clusters CVS Embryology 1
  4. 4. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Angiogenic cell cluster
  5. 5. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS cephalic • Angiogenic clusters on lateral side then spread rapidly in cephalic direction caudal CVS Embryology 1
  6. 6. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Angiogenic clusters form horseshoe shaped plexus of blood vessels • Anterior central part of plexus : Cardiogenic area CVS Embryology 1
  7. 7. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Heart Development • Develops from splanchnic mesenchyme in cardiogenic area. CVS Embryology 1
  8. 8. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS  Cardiogenic area
  9. 9. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS
  10. 10. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS  The Pericardial cavity
  11. 11. CVS EMBRYOLOGY Bilateral cardiogenic cords: • Formed from mesenchyme • Cords canalized • Form paired endocardial heart tubes CVS Embryology 1
  12. 12. CVS EMBRYOLOGY • Endocardial tubes fuse into single heart tube forming primitive heart CVS Embryology 1
  13. 13. CVS EMBRYOLOGY Fusion of primitive heart tubes
  14. 14. PRIMITIVE HEART • Heart tube elongates & bends • Cephalic portion : bend in ventral & caudal direction & to right • Caudal portion : bends to left CVS Embryology 1
  15. 15. PRIMITIVE HEART • Bending creates cardiac loop CVS Embryology 1
  16. 16. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • The cardiac loop
  17. 17. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Future heart develops dilatations & constrictions : results in 4 chambers: • sinus venosus • primordial atrium • primodial ventricle • bulbus cordis CVS Embryology 1
  18. 18. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Sinus Venosus • Maintain paired condition longer than any other portion of heart tube • Each horn receives the vitelline v, umbilical v, common cardinal v ACV: Anterior cardinal vein PCV: Posterior cardinal vein UV : Umbilical vein VIT: Vitelline vein CVS Embryology 1
  19. 19. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Sinus Venosus Sinus venosus receives: • umbilical veins from the chorion. • vitelline veins from the yolk sac • common cardinal veins from the embryo. CVS Embryology 1
  20. 20. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Sinus Venosus Inferior portion of right sinus develops into 2 parts: • Valve of inferior vena cava • Valve of coronary sinus CVS Embryology 1
  21. 21. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Sinus Venosus • Wk 4 consist of small transverse portion & L & R sinus horns CVS Embryology 1
  22. 22. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Sinus Venosus
  23. 23. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Sinus Venosus
  24. 24. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Sinus Venosus • At 1st communication between sinus & atrium is wide • With obliteration of the left umbilical vein , the left sinus horn loses its importance CVS Embryology 1
  25. 25. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Sinus Venosus develops a left horn which becomes the coronary sinus & a right horn which will be incorporated into right atrium CVS Embryology 1
  26. 26. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Sinus Venosus Remnant of the left sinus venosus : • Oblique vein of left atrium • Coronary sinus CVS Embryology 1
  27. 27. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Bulbus cordis & ventricle grow faster CVS Embryology 1
  28. 28. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Heart bends upon itself, forming a bulboventricular loop CVS Embryology 1
  29. 29. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • bulboventricular loop CVS Embryology 1
  30. 30. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Intro to atrium & sinus • Atrium & sinus venosus come to lie dorsal to bulbus cordis, truncus arteriosus & ventricle • At the same time, heart invaginates into pericardial cavity • Dorsal mesocardium which attaches it to dorsal wall of pericardial cavity degenerates & forms tranverse pericardial sinus CVS Embryology 1
  31. 31. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Truncus Arteriosus Truncus Arteriosus • Continues caudally with bulbus cordis • Enlarges cranially to form aortic sac from which aortic arches arise CVS Embryology 1
  32. 32. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Enlarges cranially to form aortic sac from which aortic arches arise Truncus Arteriosus
  33. 33. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS THE ATRIA Fate of adult Left Atrium • Formed by incorporation of primitive pulmonary veins • As atrium enlarges, parts of vein & its branches absorbed CVS Embryology 1
  34. 34. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Primitive pulmonary vein & its 4 main branches become partially incorporated into left atrium = 4 pulmonary veins. CVS Embryology 1
  35. 35. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Result • 4 pulmonary veins entering adult left atrium • Smooth walled part of left atrium derived from absorbed pulmonary vein tissue • Left auricle derived from primitive atrium CVS Embryology 1
  36. 36. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS  Development of the smooth-walled portions of the right and left atrium.  Both the wall of the right sinus horn (blue) and the pulmonary veins (red) are incorporated into the heart to form the smooth-walled parts of the atria.
  37. 37. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Cardiac septation  End of 4th wk, 2 mesenchymal cushions, the atrioventricular endocardial cushions, appear at the superior and inferior borders of the atrioventricular canal  In addition, 2 lateral atrioventricular cushions appear on the right and left borders of the canal
  38. 38. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Cardiac septation
  39. 39. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS Cardiac septation
  40. 40. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • End of 4th week, sickle shaped crest grows from roof of atrium : Septum Primum • Opening between septum primum & endocardial cushion: ostium primum CVS Embryology 1
  41. 41. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Limbs of septum extend in direction of endocardial cushions CVS Embryology 1
  42. 42. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Crescent shaped fold : septum secundum • Never forms complete partition in atrial cavity • Free concave edge overlaps ostium secundum CVS Embryology 1
  43. 43. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Opening left by septum secundum : Oval foramen CVS Embryology 1
  44. 44. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Before birth foramen ovale allows blood to pass from right atrium into left atrium; reflux is prevented by the valve. After birth foramen ovale normally closes by fusion of septum primum & septum secundum. CVS Embryology 1
  45. 45. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS CVS Embryology 1
  46. 46. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • During week 5, bulbus cordis & truncus arteriosus become divided by an aorticopulmonary septum into pulmonary trunk & aorta.
  47. 47. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • During week 5, bulbus cordis & truncus arteriosus become divided by an aorticopulmonary septum into pulmonary trunk & aorta.
  48. 48. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Ventricles become partitioned by a crescentic fold which is open cranially until end of week 7. CVS Embryology 1
  49. 49. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Primitive ventricle : give rise to most of left ventricle CVS Embryology 1
  50. 50. EMBRYOLOGY : CVS • Bulbus cordis : forms most of right ventricle CVS Embryology 1
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