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ORIGIN AND RELATIONSHIPS
A flying animal Figure below show Archeoptryx, a 147-
drowned and settled million-year-old reliative of modern bird
to the bottom of a
shallow marine lagoon
in Bavaria, 147 million
years ago and
Discovered in 1861 by
a workman splitting
slate in limestone
The fossil features:
Size of a crow
With a skull not unlike a modern birds
bony teeth set in a sockets like those of
long bony tail
- Flightless - Some can fly
- Have flat sternum - Have keeled sternum
- Poorly develop - Powerful flight muscles
Body usually spindle shaped, with 4 divisions :
head, neck, trunk and tail.
Epidermal covering of feathers and leg scales
Thin integument of epidermis and dermis
No sweat glands
Oil or preen gland at the base of tail
Fully ossified skeleton with air cavities
Nervous system well developed
Circulatory system consist of four-chambered
heart with two atria and two ventricles
Respiration by slightly expansible lungs, with an
air sacs among the visceral organs and skeleton
Excretory system includes:
Ureters open into cloaca
Testes paired with the vas deferens opening
into the clocoa
Females have left ovary and oviduct only
Amniotic eggs with much yolk and hard
Sex determined by females heterogametic
MORPHOLOGY OF BIRDS
1. Beak 11. Primaries (longest
2. Head 12. Vent
3. Iris 13. Thigh
4. Pupil 14. Tibio-tarsal
5. Mantle (back) articulation
6. Lesser coverts 15. Tarsus
7. Scapulars 16. Feet
8. Coverts 17. Tibia
9. Tertials (=the 18. Belly
flight feathers 19. Flanks
that closest to 20. Breast
the bird's body 22. Wattle
along the wing)
Answer : sebab dia confuse
dia siput ke dia babi.. Dia
berjalan lambat kerana
berfikir semasa berjalan
Structural and functional
adaptations for flight.
One of the most prominent features .
Allow for flight.
Feathers control what a bird looks like by
supplying the bird with colors.
Hollow, central shaft called a rachis.
A number of smaller side branches.
The side branches are called barbs and are
linked together by a set of barbules and their
"hooklets" sometimes called 'Hamuli‘
The base of the feather - where their are no
side branches - is called the calamus or quill.
Birds have a lightweight skeleton.
Most of the bones of flying birds are thin and
The keel-shaped sternum (breastbone) - the
powerful flight muscles attach to the body.
Part of bone;
Thorax and Sternum
Leg and Foot
The muscle ventral (underneath) to the pectorals
is the supracoracoideus. It raises the wing
The skin muscles help a bird in its flight by
adjusting the feathers, which are attached to the
skin muscle and help the bird in its flight
There are only a few muscles in the trunk and the
tail, but they are very strong and are essential
for the bird.
The pygostyle controls all the movement in the
tail and controls the feathers in the tail.
This gives the tail a larger surface area which
helps keep the bird in the air.
The tongue of birds adapted to the type of food
the bird consumes.
Birds have a two part stomach, a glandular portion
known as the proventriculus and a muscular
portion known as the gizzard.
Avian large intestine is reduced to a
short, featureless connection between the small
intestine and the cloaca.
The cloaca is the final holding area for the waste
products of digestion until they are voided
through the vent.
The avian heart has evolved into a large and
powerful organ with rapid muscular contractions.
Generally the smaller the species the larger the
relative heart size.
Birds have hearts larger and ones that beat
faster than mammals.
birds having relatively small lungs plus air sacs
that play an important role in respiration
The air sacs permit a unidirectional flow of air
through the lungs.
Unidirectional flow means that air moving through
bird lungs is largely 'fresh' air and has a higher
Therefore, in bird lungs, more oxygen is available
to diffuse into the blood.
Air flow through the avian lungs and air sacs
On first inhalation, air flows through the
trachea & primarily into the posterior (rear) air
On first exhalation, air moves from the
posterior air sacs & into the lungs
With the second inhalation, air moves from
the lungs & into the anterior (front) air sacs
With the second exhalation, air moves from
the anterior air sacs back into the trachea &
It takes two respiratory cycles to move one
"packet" of air completely through the avian
Birds excrete uric acid with their feces.
The white material seen in bird droppings is uric
acid. It is not very toxic and is not very soluble in
Excretion of wastes in the form of uric acid
conserves water because it can be produced in a
concentrated form due to its low toxicity.
Because it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic, it
can accumulate in eggs without damaging the
The synthesis of uric acid requires more energy
than urea synthesis.
There is no urinary bladder in birds.
Nervous and sensory system
The birds’ nervous system is very similar to
Both are made up of the brain, the spinal
cord, and countless nerves throughout the body
that transmit messages to and from the brain.
Birds have well-developed brains, but the enlarged
portion seems to be the area responsible for
instinctive behavior. Therefore, birds, follow very
definite patterns of migration and nesting.
Bird wing as a lift device
In birds, two kinds of wing slots have
1) The alula , or a group of small feathers
on the thumb, which
provides a mid -wing slot
2) Slotting between the primary feathers,
which provides a wing-tip slot.
Two forces are required for flapping flight
vertical lifting force to support the bird’s
horizontal thrusting force to move the
bird forward against resistive forces of
Basic forms of a bird wings
Four types of bird wings are easily
High-aspect Ratio Wings
Dynamic soaring Wings
Males repductive organ
Most of the year
- Testes tiny, bean-shaped bodes
During breeding season
- Testes will enlarge greatly as much as 300 times
their non-breeding size
- Only left ovary and
oviduct develop (figure
1.2) ; those on the right
dwindle to vestigial
structures (loss of one
ovary is another
adaptation of birds for
Nesting and care of young
Newly hatched bird divided
- Naked and unable to walk or - Include
see at birth, remain in the quail, fowl, ducks, and most
nest for a weeks or more. water birds.
- Covered with down when
hatched and can run or swim
as soon as their plumage is
Tak satupun penonton benar-benar
percaya bahawa katak-katak kecil
boleh berjaya mencapai puncak
Terdengar ada yang berkata:
"Oh, jalannya terlalu susahhhhh!!
Mereka TIDAK AKAN BOLEH sampai ke
"Tidak ada kesempatan untuk
Katak-Katak kecil mulai
... Kecuali mereka yang tetap
bersemangat menaiki menara
perlahan-lahan semakin tinggi...
dan semakin tinggi..
Penonton terus bersorak
"Terlalu susah!!! Tak seekor pun yang akan
Lebih banyak lagi katak
kecil penat dan
...Tapi ada SATU yang tetap
melangkah hingga semakin
tinggi dan tinggi...
Dia tak mahu menyerah kalah!
Akhirnya yang lain telah menyerah
untuk menaiki menara. Kecuali
seekor katak kecil yang begitu
berusaha keras dan menjadi satu-
satunya yang BERJAYA sampai
SEMUA katak kecil yang lain
ingin tahu bagaimana katak itu
Seekor peserta bertanya
bagaimana cara katak yang berjaya
itu mempunyai kekuatan untuk
Katak yang menjadi pemenang itu
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Selalulah fikirkan kata-
kata bertuah yang ada.
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