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RESTRUCTURING OF GRID
SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 1
INTRODUCTION
• Power sector across the world is undergoing a lot of
restructuring; India is no exception to this.
• In som...
What is a “Grid” ?
WHAT IS AN “INTER-CONNECTION” ?
WHY DO WE NEED THIS INTER-CONNECTION ?
1)Reliability
2)Economy
3)Proper...
All Power-Grid equipments used
Lightning Arrestor Power Transformer
Current Transformer/Potential Transformer
SARAVANAN SI...
Circuit Breakers Insulators Isolators
Wave Trap
SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 5
NEED FOR RESTRUCTURING
• The need for restructuring the power sector was felt
due to the scarcity of financial resources a...
PROPOSED MODEL FOR
RESTRUCTURING IN INDIA
• In many parts of the world wherever unbundling, i.e.
separation of generation,...
ISO AND TSO MODELS
• . In ISO model, transmission companies are also
permitted to own, manage and control generation and
d...
TO BE CONTINUED….
• TSO model seems to be most suitable for future
restructured electricity market in India.
• This is bec...
ELECTRICITY ACT 2003
• This act consolidates all the existing laws and
introduces provisions with respect to new
developme...
SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 111
SALIENT FEATURES
• Open access in transmission with provision of surcharge
for cross subsidy and this surcharge
will be gr...
CENTRALAUTHORITY SYSTEM
SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 13
COORDINATE WITH
OTHER
SYSNCHRONOUS GRIDS
(EX NR, ER,NER)
REGIONAL (SYNCHRONO...
GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY
• The generating company should establish, operate and
maintain generating stations, tie-lines, ...
Central Authority System (contd.)
•The Central Electricity Authority of India (CEA) is a
statutory organisation constitute...
What is a National load Dispatch Centre ?
The main functions assigned to NLDC are:
• Supervision Over the Regional Load Di...
Sharing Of Transmission Charges
WHEELING CHARGES:
•Wheeling is the transportation of electric power (megawatts
or megavolt...
Ownership and Coordination
• Inter-State and other transmission links may be owned
by other independent entity (Ex: PGCIL)...
TRANSCOs:
DISCOS:
GENCOS:
The companies which are responsible for power generation are
called as Generation Companies(GENC...
Transmission of Electricity
• The RLDC will work as per the Indian Electricity Grid Code
(IEGC) to ensure integrated opera...
Distribution of Electricity
• State Commission permits a consumer or class of
consumers to receive supply of electricity f...
Different grids of India
SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 22
Some Landmark Events Of Power Grid
• 1948 - Growth of supply systems
• 1962- First 220KV Voltage level
• 1967- Interconnec...
Thank You…
SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 24
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Restructuring of power grid

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This PPT is about the power grid and restructuring it.

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Restructuring of power grid

  1. 1. RESTRUCTURING OF GRID SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Power sector across the world is undergoing a lot of restructuring; India is no exception to this. • In some States of India there are multiple private utilities, which are technically and financially in a position to enter the phase of a competitive electricity market. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 2
  3. 3. What is a “Grid” ? WHAT IS AN “INTER-CONNECTION” ? WHY DO WE NEED THIS INTER-CONNECTION ? 1)Reliability 2)Economy 3)Proper Load Sharing Two or more generating stations are interconnected by tie lines. Interconnection provides the best use of power resources and ensures greater security of supply. An Interconnected power system covering a major portion of a country’s territory (or state) is called a Grid. The different state grids may be a interconnected through transmission lines to form a Grid. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 3
  4. 4. All Power-Grid equipments used Lightning Arrestor Power Transformer Current Transformer/Potential Transformer SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 4
  5. 5. Circuit Breakers Insulators Isolators Wave Trap SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 5
  6. 6. NEED FOR RESTRUCTURING • The need for restructuring the power sector was felt due to the scarcity of financial resources available with Central and State Governments. • Necessity of improving the technical and commercial efficiency. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 6
  7. 7. PROPOSED MODEL FOR RESTRUCTURING IN INDIA • In many parts of the world wherever unbundling, i.e. separation of generation, transmission and distribution has taken place, the two models are more prevalent for system operation. • Independent System Operator (ISO) model • Transmission System Operator (TSO) model. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 7
  8. 8. ISO AND TSO MODELS • . In ISO model, transmission companies are also permitted to own, manage and control generation and distribution companies, an independent system operator is created to facilitate open access and competitive markets. • In TSO model, operation of the grid and ownership of the grid are integrated in a single entity, which is responsible for development of transmission system and to provide non-discriminatory open access to all eligible market participants. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 8
  9. 9. TO BE CONTINUED…. • TSO model seems to be most suitable for future restructured electricity market in India. • This is because the government owned transmission company is merely responsible to provide non- discriminatory open access. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 9
  10. 10. ELECTRICITY ACT 2003 • This act consolidates all the existing laws and introduces provisions with respect to new developments in the sector. It focuses on creating competition, protecting consumer interests, rationalizing tariff, etc. • All the necessary powers including issue of licenses are given to the regulators which are made independent entities from the government. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 100
  11. 11. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 111
  12. 12. SALIENT FEATURES • Open access in transmission with provision of surcharge for cross subsidy and this surcharge will be gradually phased out. • Distribution licensees are free to undertake generation and generating companies are free to take up distribution licensees. • For rural and remote areas stand alone systems for generation and distribution would be permitted. • State Governments can convert State Electricity Boards (SEBs) into companies or continue them as distribution licensees. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 122
  13. 13. CENTRALAUTHORITY SYSTEM SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 13 COORDINATE WITH OTHER SYSNCHRONOUS GRIDS (EX NR, ER,NER) REGIONAL (SYNCHRONOUS GRID) LOAD DESPATCH CENTRE STATE LOAD DESPATCH CENTRES CENTRALLY OWNED LINES CENTRALLY OWNED PLANTS INTER-STATE TIE LINES STATE OWNED HVDC LINES DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION POWERPLANT OPERATORS
  14. 14. GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY • The generating company should establish, operate and maintain generating stations, tie-lines, substations and dedicated transmission lines. • According to the 16th Electric Power survey conducted by CEA, the country has energy shortage of 7.8 % and peaking shortage of 13 % (100GW). • As per the reports published by Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (OIES) [6] the Indian Government should do more to encourage and facilitate local private investment in small-scale distributed electricity generation capacity. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 144
  15. 15. Central Authority System (contd.) •The Central Electricity Authority of India (CEA) is a statutory organisation constituted under section 3(1) of Electricity Supply Act 1948 •To develop a sound adequate and uniform national power policy, formulate short-term and perspective plans for power development and co-ordinate the activities of planning agencies in relation to the control and utilisation of national power resources. •To collect and record the data concerning generation, distribution and utilisation of power and carry out studies relating to cost, efficiency, losses, benefits and such like matters. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 155
  16. 16. What is a National load Dispatch Centre ? The main functions assigned to NLDC are: • Supervision Over the Regional Load Dispatch Centers. • Scheduling and dispatch of electricity over the inter-regional links in accordance with grid standards specified by the authority and grid code specified by Central Commission in coordination with Regional Load Dispatch Centers. • Coordination with Regional Load Dispatch Centers for achieving maximum economy and efficiency in the operation of National Grid. • Monitoring of operations and grid security of the National Grid. • Coordination for restoration of synchronous operation of national grid with Regional Load Despatch Centres. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 166
  17. 17. Sharing Of Transmission Charges WHEELING CHARGES: •Wheeling is the transportation of electric power (megawatts or megavolt-amperes) over transmission lines. •An entity that generates power does not have to own power transmission lines •The entity then pays the owner of the transmission line based on how much power is being moved and how congested the line is. •Charges for inter-regional lines may be shared by two contiguous regions on 50 : 50 basis. •Charges for the regional assets may be shared by the regional beneficiaries •If an inter regional asset is used for wheeling by a third party the balance transmission charges may be shared by the beneficiaries of the contiguous region on 50 : 50 basis. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 177
  18. 18. Ownership and Coordination • Inter-State and other transmission links may be owned by other independent entity (Ex: PGCIL). • State Electricity Boards can Import or Export a pre decided amount of power from neighboring states or generators owned by other entities like National Thermal Power Corporation. • State Electricity Boards are divided into 1) Generation companies (GENCOs) 2) Distribution Companies (DISCOs) 3) Transmission Companies(TRANSCOs) • Overall coordination is done by a Load Dispatch Centre. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 188
  19. 19. TRANSCOs: DISCOS: GENCOS: The companies which are responsible for power generation are called as Generation Companies(GENCOs) ex: NTPC The companies which are responsible for transmission of large amounts of power are called as Transmission companies(TRANSCOs) Ex: PowerGrid The companies which are responsible for Distribution of the large amounts of power to the general public are called as Distribution Companies(DISCOs) Ex: UP-RVVNL SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 199
  20. 20. Transmission of Electricity • The RLDC will work as per the Indian Electricity Grid Code (IEGC) to ensure integrated operation of the power system in the concerned regions. • It has to monitor grid operations, keep accounts of the quantity of electricity transmitted through the regional grids, exercise supervision and control over the Intra-State transmission. • It will be responsible for carrying out real time operations for grid control and dispatch of electricity within the state through secure and economic operation of the state grid in accordance with grid standards and the state grid code. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 20
  21. 21. Distribution of Electricity • State Commission permits a consumer or class of consumers to receive supply of electricity from a person other than the distribution licensee of his area of supply, such consumer shall be liable to pay an additional surcharge on the charges of wheeling, as may be specified by the State Commission, to meet the fixed cost of such distribution licensee arising out of his obligation to supply. • Distribution companies have been given mandate for achieving complete metering within two years from the enactment of the law. SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 21
  22. 22. Different grids of India SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 22
  23. 23. Some Landmark Events Of Power Grid • 1948 - Growth of supply systems • 1962- First 220KV Voltage level • 1967- Interconnection Of state Grids to form Regional Grids • 1975- First 400Kv Voltage level • 1989- HVDC Back to Back • 1998- Installation of 765 Kv line(Charged at 400Kv) • 2006- Synchronisation of NR with ER-NER-WR • 2007- Transmission at 765 Kv • 2010/11- Installation of 800Kv HVDC Bi-pole Line SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 23
  24. 24. Thank You… SARAVANAN SIVAMANI 24

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