1. The Flipped Classroom
Flipped instruction is a method of instruction where students utilize web-based
learning as their “homework.” Students watch videos, explore readings, participate in
discussions, complete pre-lab activities, and accomplish module activities to learn
content independently. The teacher basically designs lessons that are instructed while
students are at home through the use of technology, including videos, podcasts,
readings, and websites. Students have access to these materials as frequently as they
need, and may also explore these activities at their own pace, as opposed to teacher-
led instruction in the classroom at a teacher-designated pace.
Once students have knowledge of the content from their at-home assignments,
they return to school where they can be involved in student-centered activities to
reinforce the same concepts they learned for homework. By devoting more time to the
student-centered aspects, learning can be differentiated to meet the needs of all
students. Students are engaged in hands-on activities, applications, connections, and
projects, achieving a deeper understanding of content. This method allows teachers to
actively provide more feedback and support for students immediately.
Benefits of Flipped Instruction
Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2012). Chapter 2: The Flipped Classroom. Flip Your
Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day. International
Society for Technology in Education. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from
Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day’s Chapter 2, The
Flipped Classroom, emphasizes the key benefit of flipped instruction—more time in
class to enforce concepts. Bergmann and Sams point out that a typical classroom
spends about half of a period lecturing new content and only has about twenty to thirty-
five minutes of independent practice and interactive activities. However, in a flipped
classroom, seventy-five minutes can be directed to these same activities to reinforce
concepts—an increase from 22%-38% of student-centered activity time in a tradition
setting to 83% student-centered activity time in a flipped setting. Bergmann and Sams
2. have vast experience with flipped instruction, as they pioneered the field with
screencasting. This book is intended for educators who are interested in flipping their
Bishop, J. L. & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the
American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference
& Exposition Atlanta. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from
The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research explores a variety of case studies
and reviews other literature on flipped instruction. Bishop and Verleger look for
similarities and differences in the case studies presented and point out benefits of the
flipped classroom as well as research on flipped classroom—it is very cost-effective to
design and develop instructional videos. The authors both have backgrounds in
engineering, as well as personal interests in online learning and flipped classrooms.
Their survey of the research was presented to an audience of mostly engineers,
including engineering professors.
Fulton, K. (2012). Upside Down and Inside Out: Flip Your Classroom to Improve
Student Learning. International Society for Technology in Education. Learning
and Leading with Technology, 39(8) 13-17. ERIC. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from
Upside Down and Inside Out: Flip Your Classroom to Improve Student Learning
provides a brief overview of what flipped instruction is and then provides examples of
flipped classrooms from around the United States. Fulton explores benefits of flipped
classrooms—from teachers collaborating during professional learning community time
to saving money by creating videos and making reusable resources as opposed to
buying expensive textbooks or one-time use workbooks. She continues to discuss the
positive results and successes of flipped instruction, as well as parent and student
reactions. The author is an independent consultant with a variety of experience with
web-based education and technology assessment. Her audience for this piece was
mainly educators and administrators.
O’Neil, K., Kelly, T., & Bone, S. (2012). We Turned Learning On Its Ear: Flipping the
Developmental Classroom. EDMEDIA: Proceedings of World Conference on
Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Telecommunications 2012. 2752-
2756. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from
3. We Turned Learning On Its Ear: Flipping the Developmental Classroom explores
flipped instruction and its benefits for both instructors and students. O’Neil, Kelly, and
Bone emphasize how flipped instruction builds great community among faculty
members as they provide feedback for one another and develop and refine courses and
instructional materials. The authors also point out that faculty has greater buy-in as
they must be greatly involved in the flipped classroom model and student achievement.
The authors have a background in writing and teach at Kaplan University. Although
they aim their research for educators, there is no evidence of their experience with
Talbert, R. (2012). Inverted Classroom. Colleagues, 9(1) Article 7. Web. 24 June 2014.
Inverted Classroom explains the benefits of flipped instruction through the examples of
three university studies. These findings emphasize how easy it is to implement a
flipped classroom, due to cheap, accessible, and simple technology for recording and
sharing video and instructional methods. Talbert is a math instructor at the university
level and has a personal interest in screencasting, which directly relates to flipped
instruction. His intended audience is other professors and educators.
Tucker, B. (2012). The Flipped Classroom: Online Instruction at Home Frees Class
Time for Learning. Education Next, 12(1) 82-83. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved
The Flipped Classroom: Online Instruction at Home Frees Class Time for Learning
emphasizes the benefits of flipped instruction. Tucker explores some of the “inventors”
of flipped instruction and the importance of videos to teach content. Instructors
emphasize the importance of creating videos to “explain a concept in a clear, concise,
bite-sized chunk.” Instructors are forced to consider the pace of content, visual
representations, and align assessments. Students, as well as instructors, benefit from
having concise instructional videos to explain procedures as well as conceptual ideas.
The article highlights how online tools, instructional videos, and interactive simulation
are rapidly increasing as flipped instruction increases in popularity. The author of this
piece does not have an apparent background in technology or education, nor does he
cite his references. His article is geared toward educators at any grade level, mainly
those who want an introduction to the flipped classroom design.
4. Drawbacks of Flipped Instruction
Herreid, C. F., & Schiller, N. A. (2013). Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom.
Journal of College Science Teaching, 42(5), 62-66. Web. 24 June 2014.
Retrieved from https://aacu-
Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom discusses the negatives and positives of a
flipped classroom. Herreid and Schiller’s research identifies two major drawbacks:
students are hesitant to work from home on outside reading and videos and instructors
must devote an immense amount of time to tailor the instructional homework, readings,
and videos for students. The studies reviewed suggest instructors build a library of
videos available for flipped learning instruction to engage students in student-centered
learning. The authors each have a background in technology and teaching and direct
this article toward college science professors.
Horn, M. (2013). The Transformational Potential of Flipped Classrooms: Different
Strokes for Different Folks. Education Next, 13(3) 78-79. Web. 24 June 2014.
Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/files/ednext_XIII_3_whatnext.pdf.
The Transformational Potential of Flipped Classrooms: Different Strokes for Different
Folks examines the reality of the flipped classroom. Horn emphasizes that very few
flipped classrooms truly address the limitations of “brick-and-mortar schools.” In an
ideal flipped classroom setting, students could move at their own pace and view the
lessons at home to meet their own needs. However, many flipped classrooms are not to
this point yet and flipped instruction is directed toward the whole class. Although flipped
classrooms may show motivation with some students, Horn is quick to point out that the
lack of motivation still exists among many low-achieving students. Another drawback
that Horn points out is that many impoverished districts and low-income students may
lack the amount of technology needed to flip a classroom, although they can work to
overcome this issue. The reader is not provided a background on the author of this
article, which is geared toward all educators.
Student Perspectives and Engagement
Butt, A. (2014) Student Views on the Use of a Flipped Classroom Approach: Evidence
from Australia. Business Education and Accreditation, 6(1) 33-43. Web. 24 June
2014. Retrieved from http://www.theibfr.com/ARCHIVE/BEA-V6N1-2014-
5. Student Views on the Use of a Flipped Classroom Approach: Evidence from Australia
describes what a flipped classroom is, reviews literature, and studies students’
perspectives from the beginning of a course and the end of a course. Overall, seventy-
five percent of students had a positive view of flipped instruction, especially due to the
availability and low-cost of materials. The study delves into students’ opinions of
lectures in class, as opposed to content being delivered outside of the classroom
setting. The author of this study is a lecturer, but we are uncertain of his background
with technology integration and web-based instruction. The audience for this research
study is mainly business educators and other higher-level educators.
Educause (2012) 7 Things You Should Know About Flipped Classrooms. Educause
Learning Initiative, 47(1). Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from
7 Things You Should Know About Flipped Classrooms is a brief article that discusses a
variety of aspects of flipped classrooms, including positive and negative points. This
piece places an emphasis on the students’ responsibility for learning and take a more
active role in the classroom. Students, in turn, show more willingness to experiment
and take risks with their education. This quick read can be directed toward anyone from
educators to parents.
Missildine, K., Fountain, R., Summers, L., & Gosselin, K. (2013). Flipping the
Classroom to Improve Student Performance and Satisfaction. Journal of Nursing
Education, 52(10) 597-599. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from
Flipping the Classroom to Improve Student Performance and Satisfaction is a research
brief about the benefits of flipped instruction on student achievement. Students who
received aspects of a flipped classroom received higher scores on their assessments,
but the data on student satisfaction lacked validity, so further research is needed. The
authors of this study are nursing professors who were interested in implementing flipped
instruction into their nursing programs. This article is aimed toward other educators,
especially those in the nursing field.
Roehl, A., Reddy, S. L., & Shannon, G. J. (2013). The Flipped Classroom: An
Opportunity to Engage Millennial Students Through Active Learning Strategies.
Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 105(2) 44-49. Web. 24 June 2014.
6. The Flipped Classroom: An Opportunity to Engage Millennial Students Through Active
Learning Strategies defines millennial students or “digital natives,” students who have
grown up around technology and have great access to a breadth of information and
technology. Roehl, Reddy, and Shannon continue to describe how these digital natives
are used to continuous access to technology and benefit from active learning strategies,
hence the focus on the flipped classroom. They continue to emphasize how students
are more aware of their learning processes and can be actively engaged through
freedom to interact with the content and other students. Students are also taking more
responsibility in their education. The authors also explain the challenges of flipped
instruction. The authors of the study have backgrounds in interior design and fashion
merchandising, and do not appear to have any background with flipped classrooms or
web-based learning. The intended audience for this article is instructors and the family
and consumer science sector.
Stone, B. B. (2012). Flip Your Classroom to Increase Active Learning and Student
Engagement. 28th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning.
Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from
Flip Your Classroom to Increase Active Learning and Student Engagement is a
research study that explored the impact flipped instruction has on student learning,
attendance, and attitude toward teaching strategies. This specific study showed greater
student achievement in the small classroom, but no significant impact on student
achievement in a larger classroom setting. Stone has experience teaching online and
flipped classes. This research study is geared toward other instructors and educators
interested in flipping.
Instructional Modules for Flipping
Adam, M., Boneh, D., Fisher, D., Klemmer, S., McFarland, D., Noor, M., Rixner, S.,
Warren, J., Sainani, K., Williams, A., Zelikow, P., Everett, S., Diamond, L.,
Booske, J., Campbell, J., & Moses, G. (2013). Flipped Classroom Field Guide.
Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from
Flipped Classroom Field Guide is a guide to flipping your classroom. It is an in-depth
resource to flipping, especially integrating active learning activities for student-centered
learning emphasis in the classroom, including applications, extensions, discussions,
packets of problems, classroom assessment techniques, and collaborative learning
7. activities. It also explains how to collect and use data in the flipped classroom setting.
This guide is a collaborative piece by many professors and a combination of their
Demski, J. (2013). 6 Expert Tips for Flipping the Classroom. Campus Technology,
26(5) 32-37. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from
6 Expert Tips for Flipping the Classroom explores methods to effectively flip a
classroom—use existing technology, be up front with expectations, let students learn
from one another, assess students’ pre-class assignment understanding, set a specific
target, and build assessments to complement the flipped model. Demski has many
published sources for web-based instruction and educational technology. The intended
audience for this article includes educators—mainly college professors, but can be
adjusted to fit any developmental level.
Flumerfelt, S. & Green, G. (2012). Using Lean in the Flipped Classroom for At Risk
Students. Educational Technology and Society, 16(1), 356-366. Web. 24 June
2014. Retrieved from http://ifets.info/journals/16_1/31.pdf.
Using Lean in the Flipped Classroom for At Risk Students suggests that many schools
are slow to adapt for “digital natives,” integrating technology and student-centered
active learning. Lean is a way to adjust to meet these needs. Lean is defined as “an
approach that requires the commitment of the technical, social and human capital of an
organization to continuous improvement for the purpose of identifying distinct ways to
create value as determined by the customer and to eliminate waste based on thoughtful
examination of its root causes.” By using the lean approach, teachers can effectively
flip their classrooms to spend more time focusing on student achievement and
knowledge. This research study and article was written by two educators and aimed
toward other educators.
Jamaludin, R. & Osman, S. Z. (2014). The Use of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance
Engagement and Promote Active Learning. Journal of Education and Practice,
5(2) 124-131. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from
The Use of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance Engagement and Promote Active Learning
is a study that investigates the behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and agentic
engagement of students in a flipped classroom. The findings of this study emphasize
that students are more behaviorally, emotionally, cognitively, and agentically engaged in
the flipped classroom setting. Jamaludin and Osman are instructors of instructional
technology and this research study is aimed toward other educators.
8. Maher, M. L., Lipford, H., & Singh, V. (2012) Flipped Classroom Strategies Using
Online Videos. University of North Carolina Charlotte, 1-6 . Web. 24 June 2014.
Flipped Classroom Strategies Using Online Videos is a study of flipping a web
development course at the college level. The study collected and critiqued online
videos. Students provided feedback on videos weekly. Students enjoyed being able to
move through content at their own pace, but some were frustrated when they were
familiar with concepts and had to review the videos at a slower pace than they
preferred. The study found that some complicated concepts are difficult to learn
through video instruction. Overall, the study showed that learning through online videos
was effective and helpful for students. This study was conducted by professors of
software and information, suggesting they have a background with educational
technology. The study is intended for educators who would like to implement online
videos into their instruction.
Shimamoto, D. N. (2012). Implementing a Flipped Classroom: An Instructional Module.
Web. 24 June 24 2014. Retrieved from
Implementing a Flipped Classroom: An Instructional Module is a case study using a
designed instructional module (http://www.kokuamai.com/test/flipped) for flipped
classrooms. This instructional module was implemented in seventh to twelfth grades
and results show that the instructional module was useful for a majority of the
participants. Shimamoto has a background in Educational Technology and is familiar
with web-based learning and the flipped classroom module. His intended audience for
this piece is probably higher-level educators and other educational technology
Sullivan, S. (2013). Adapting the Flipped Classroom for At-Risk Science Students
through Learning-Centered Design. SUNY Institute of Technology, Information
Design and Technology, 1-55. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from
Adapting the Flipped Classroom for At-Risk Science Students through Learning-
Centered Design presents guidelines for developing effective videos. This paper
suggests using learning-centered design and explains how to adapt the flipped
classroom to meet the needs of all students. The author of this piece has a background
in information design and technology. This project is intended for anyone who wants to
incorporate videos into their instruction, flip their class, or use alternative education
9. Tan, E. & Pearce, N. (2011). Open Education Videos in the Classroom: Exploring the
Opportunities and Barriers to the Use of YouTube in Teaching Introductory
Sociology. Research in Learning Technology: The Journal of the Association for
Learning Technology, 19(1) 125-133. Retrieved from
Open Education Videos in the Classroom: Exploring the Opportunities and Barriers to
the Use of YouTube in Teaching Introductory Sociology delves into the use of videos in
the classroom, as well as what qualities videos should have—from the ability to promote
class discussion to how videos engage social media to promote student collaboration.
This study focuses on the importance of social connections and sharing among
students. There is no biography for the authors. This research study would be
beneficial to educators wanting to flip their classrooms, as well as anyone who wants to
incorporate videos and social aspects into their classroom.
The flipped classroom model is fairly new and more research and data on flipped
instruction is collected continuously. Even though there is data and many instructional
models for flipping a classroom, many of these sources suggest flipping a classroom will
look different depending on the development of the students, subject-matter that is
covered, and diversity of the students, among other factors.
Flipped instruction, as well as all other forms of distant-learning, is continually
developing as more technology becomes available. As flipped instruction becomes
more popular and wide-spread, more resources are available through flipped classroom
data bases, such as Flipped Classroom (http://www.flippedclassroom.com/), Flipped
Learning (http://www.flippedlearning.org/domain/36), Flip’in Utah
(http://www.uen.org/flipped/), Jim Warford (http://jimwarford.com/classroom-resources/),
and more instructional videos are constantly being uploaded to YouTube
(https://www.youtube.com/). Building databases to support flipped instruction makes it
easier for instructors to flip their classrooms in the best interest of their students.