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20TH CENTURY DESIGN AND CULTURE
TERM: JULY 2013
LECTURER: SANDRA DRASKOVIC
DE STIJL
THE STYLE
Before First World Ward new concepts and forms:
1. ART NOUVEAU
2. BAUHAUS,
3. EXPRESSIONISM,
4. FUTURISM,
5. CUBISM
New te...
World War I
1914-1918
Stormtroops Advancing Under Gas
etching and aquatint by Otto Dix, 1924
Battle of the Somme, Soldier
...
Post I World War period
Architecture needs to invent the program to addres the
social needs: unemployment, homeless peopl...
1920: “Art is Dead!” - Dada Fair held in Berlin
 Dada Berlin formed as
attack on bourgeois
German society
 Politically m...
Hannah Hoch
 The “It Girl” of a circle of male
artists in Berlin Dada
 Demonstrates major tenets of
Berlin Dada (anti-ae...
Grosz, To Oskar Panizza, 1917-18
h•Artists reacted in a variety of
different ways to the traumatic
experience of WWI. Many...
Grosz, The Pillars of Society, 1926
Here Grosz makes nasty fun of several types
in contemporary German society.
In the for...
- Neo-Plasticism is Dutch and was founded by Piet Mondrian.
- It is a form of Abstract
- Rectangles, horizontal and vertic...
Neo-plasticism
Mondrian, Pier and Ocean, 1915
Here you can see
that all of nature
has been reduced
to simply black
and whi...
Mondrian, Composition with Red, Yellow, Blue, and
Black, 1921
By 1921 Mondrian had settled
on what would become his
formul...
Kandinsky, Composition VIII, 1923
All of the emotional drama
of free colors and brush
strokes evolves into crisp
geometric...
Piet Mondrian
Composition with Red, Yellow and Blue
(1921) Three Hotels on Broadway
Boogie-Woogie, (1949)
Tableau 1, (1921)
Theo van Doesburg
Composition VII (the three
graces), (1917)
Contra-Construction Project
(1923)
City Rhythm
(1948)
Transfer to Cathay
(1948)
Charmion von
Wiegand
Large Blue Horizontal
(1975)
Black Diamond (1978)Untitled
Ilya Bolotowsky
Studie, (1921)
Monotype, (1924)
Vilmos Huszar
De stijl1917-1931
“.. Only primary colors and non-
colors, only squares and
rectangles, only straight and
horizontal or ve...
De Stijl – “The Style”
• Dutch artistic movement, founded in Netherlands. Also
known as Neo-Plasticism.
• Founders: Piet M...
INFLUENCES
•Frank Lloyd Wright – building appeared in
magazine Wasmuth, 1910-11
•French cubists – with different vision of...
De Stijl Magazine First
Front Cover.
1917 - Vilmos Huszár
• The group’s monthly
journal called ‘De-Stijl’
started in 1917....
MANIFESTO OF DE STIJL, 1918
• complex theoretical goal of new
world order
•Buildings should be radically
simplified
• prin...
MANIFESTO OF DE STIJL
Theo van doesburg
• Dutch artist.
• Founder and Leader of De
Stijl.
• Complete abstraction of
reality in his paintings.
• ...
Theo van Doesburg
Simultaneous Counter-
Composition 1929
Counter Composition V, 1925.
Piet mondrian
• Dutch Painter,
theorist and
draughtsman. His
work marks the
transition at the start
of the 20th century
fr...
Piet mondrian
Composition with Red,
Blue, and Yellow
Neo Plastisicm - 1930
The essence of
Mondrian’s ideas is that
paintin...
COMPOSITION WITH YELLOW , BLUE , RED ,
1937-42 , PIET MONDRIAN.
Gerrit rietveld
• Dutch furniture designer
and architect.
• One of the principal
members of De Stijl.
• Famous for his Red...
INTRODUCTION
 De Stijl Dutch for "The Style", also known as
neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement
founded in 1917....
FORMING THE DE STIJL
 They advocated pure abstraction and universality by a
reduction to the essentials of form and colou...
INFLUENCE ON ARCHITECTURE
 The Rietveld Schröder House—the only building
realised completely according to the principles ...
STUDY FOR AN APARTMENT BUILDING,
1923, TEO VAN DOESBURG
STUDY FOR AN APARTMENT BUILDING, 1923,
TEO VAN DOESBURG
Multiform, abstract geometrical order
Right-angled
Combination ...
The
Dutchman Gerrit
Rietveld (1888-
1964) was one of
the most important
designers and
architects of the
20th century.
Gerr...
Today his work is
primarily
associated with
his two most
famous designs,
which have
become icons of
modernism:
the Red-Blu...
The Rietveld Schröder House—the only building realised
completely according to the principles of De Stijl.
Floating effect of the
balcony, light
balustrade, large
glass corners, open
space, flexibility,
rectangular walls
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=pl
ayer_embedded&v=qLHCYeswxuI
Red blue chair
Originally designed in
1917-1918, the
Red/blue chair had a
natural wood finish
(Beachwood and
plywood
const...
Red blue chair
He later painted
this revolutionary
chair in 1921 as a
result of his
association with
the De Stijl
movement.
Red blue chair variations
Red blue chair elements
Red blue chair technical drawings
Red blue chair details
Red blue chair
Traditional
bamboo trusses
show non
intersecting
beams and
girders with
protruding ends.
Red blue chair detail of rails
Rietveld writes as follows about his joints:
•The ordinary doweled joint, by which the post takes the rail, is still
used ...
Red blue chair details
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEMcmWHqg9g
Date : 1918
Country : Netherlands
Materials : wood (lacq...
Café Aubette, Strasbourg, France,
Theo Van Doesburg
Café Aubette, Strasbourg, France,
Theo Van Doesburg
•The Cafe Aubette, located in the central square of
Strasbourg, is one...
Café De Unie, De Stijl, Roterdam, 1925
•Café De Unie; Café; De Stijl;
•Creation date: 1925;
• Architect: J.J.P. Oud.
Café Aubette, Strasbourg, France,
Theo Van Doesburg
•J.J.P. Oud’s association with De Stijl lasted from 1917 to
1922. Oud ...
Jacobus Johannes Peter Oud,
Café De Unie façade, Rotterdam, 1925
Café De Unie, De Stijl, Roterdam, 1925
Café De Unie, De Stijl, Roterdam, 1925
Reconstruction, Mondrian’s Atelier at 26, rue du Départ,
Paris - The atelier in 1926
De stijl, Neo-plasticism, Gerit Rietveld
De stijl, Neo-plasticism, Gerit Rietveld
De stijl, Neo-plasticism, Gerit Rietveld
De stijl, Neo-plasticism, Gerit Rietveld
De stijl, Neo-plasticism, Gerit Rietveld
De stijl, Neo-plasticism, Gerit Rietveld
De stijl, Neo-plasticism, Gerit Rietveld
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De stijl, Neo-plasticism, Gerit Rietveld

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Raffles International Institute
Module: 20th century design and culture
Lecturer: Sandra Draskovic
Lesson: Modernism: De Stijl

Publicada em: Educação
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De stijl, Neo-plasticism, Gerit Rietveld

  1. 1. 20TH CENTURY DESIGN AND CULTURE TERM: JULY 2013 LECTURER: SANDRA DRASKOVIC DE STIJL THE STYLE
  2. 2. Before First World Ward new concepts and forms: 1. ART NOUVEAU 2. BAUHAUS, 3. EXPRESSIONISM, 4. FUTURISM, 5. CUBISM New technologies, technical innovation, new materials, new industries After I World War end of One era era of traditional world, End of Austro-Hungarian state that disappeared from the Map of Europe, Russia and Germany were swept away by revolution United States began to be stronger
  3. 3. World War I 1914-1918 Stormtroops Advancing Under Gas etching and aquatint by Otto Dix, 1924 Battle of the Somme, Soldier Carrying Casualty, 1916  Trench & mechanized warfare, modern weapons, tanks, aircrafts  More than 9 million deaths, postwar uncertainity, poverty, unemployment
  4. 4. Post I World War period Architecture needs to invent the program to addres the social needs: unemployment, homeless people, hunger, uncertainty New economical-social atmosphere was a challenge for artists, poems, writes, painters, designers In architecture a drive to develop new functional ways of buildings and new use of materials: GLASS, CONCRETE, IRON, STEEL New forms and programs to address modern changes: new housing development, urgency to find the solution for homeless people and poverty. New Urbanism, utopian ideas of city planning.
  5. 5. 1920: “Art is Dead!” - Dada Fair held in Berlin  Dada Berlin formed as attack on bourgeois German society  Politically mobilized & aligned with the Communist party which was found in Germany in 1919  Shared distaste for earlier 20th century avant-garde movements (Expressionism & spirituality, Cubism’s emphasis on aesthetics, Futurism & typography)  Photomontage emerges as a major strategy to deconstruct the image & dismantle Weimar consumer culture (driven by commodity images and advertizing) Hoch and Haussman Dummy with a pig’s head dressed as German officer
  6. 6. Hannah Hoch  The “It Girl” of a circle of male artists in Berlin Dada  Demonstrates major tenets of Berlin Dada (anti-aesthetic, illogical, non-hierarchical, politically driven and left wing)  Images clipped and collaged together with no apparent formal logic  Grotesque juxtapositions, distortions of scale  Inventory of major German figures (Einstein, Friedrich Ebert, Kathe Kollwitz (a German Expressionist artist), Marx, Lenin) with Dada sayings written throughout (“Dada is not an art trend”)  Major Berlin Dadaists in lower right quadrant, including Hoch above map of European countries where women can vote Hannah Hoch, Cut with a Kitchen Knife through the Beer Belly of the Weimar Republic, 1919
  7. 7. Grosz, To Oskar Panizza, 1917-18 h•Artists reacted in a variety of different ways to the traumatic experience of WWI. Many believed that the War had proven that the world was senseless and crazy, and that there was no hope left. A style of art called “Dada” was born out of this despair. The word Dada was chosen because of its meaninglessness. Dadaists wanted to be as nihilistic as possible, and their work is often extremely bleak. This was especially true in Germany where feelings of despair were mixed with shame as the ones who lost. •This painting shows society in total collapse with buildings slanted at impossible angles and everything in flames.
  8. 8. Grosz, The Pillars of Society, 1926 Here Grosz makes nasty fun of several types in contemporary German society. In the foreground is a student holding a pint of beer. His head is open on top and inside is a man on horseback – a reference to old and now totally discredited myths of the glory of war. His tie pin is a swaztika showing that he has learned nothing and is a follower of right wing politics. Behind him on the right is an academic (professor). His head is also open and in place of brains there is a stinking pile of shit. Behind him is a priest who looks as though he is in the advanced stages of alcoholism. Nobody escapes the wrath of this furious artist.
  9. 9. - Neo-Plasticism is Dutch and was founded by Piet Mondrian. - It is a form of Abstract - Rectangles, horizontal and vertical lines, and a limited color palette make up Neo-Plasticism. Piet Mondrian- Dutch Painter (1872-1944) Theo van Doesburg- Dutch Painter (1883-1931) Charmion von Wiegand- American Painter (1900-1983) Ilya Bolotowsky- Russian/American Painter (1907-1981) Vilmos Huszar- Hungarian/Dutch Painter (1884-1960) Well Known Neo-Plasticism Artist
  10. 10. Neo-plasticism Mondrian, Pier and Ocean, 1915 Here you can see that all of nature has been reduced to simply black and white and horizontal and vertical lines. What are the universal truths of the natural world, he asked? If we can reveal those underlying truths perhaps we can all live together in harmony.
  11. 11. Mondrian, Composition with Red, Yellow, Blue, and Black, 1921 By 1921 Mondrian had settled on what would become his formula of primary colors, black and white, and vertical and horizontal lines. From these components the entire visual/natural world can be constructed. It is as if he believed himself a prophet who discovered a hidden ultimate truth and was duty- bound to enlighten the rest of us. The ultimate goal was social harmony among all people. This style is all about order, clarity, the universality of basic geometry, etc.
  12. 12. Kandinsky, Composition VIII, 1923 All of the emotional drama of free colors and brush strokes evolves into crisp geometric shapes drawn with drafting tools. The power of abstract geometry as a regenerative language that would wipe away all of the chaos and confusion of the preceding years was very powerful at this time.
  13. 13. Piet Mondrian Composition with Red, Yellow and Blue (1921) Three Hotels on Broadway Boogie-Woogie, (1949) Tableau 1, (1921)
  14. 14. Theo van Doesburg Composition VII (the three graces), (1917) Contra-Construction Project (1923)
  15. 15. City Rhythm (1948) Transfer to Cathay (1948) Charmion von Wiegand
  16. 16. Large Blue Horizontal (1975) Black Diamond (1978)Untitled Ilya Bolotowsky
  17. 17. Studie, (1921) Monotype, (1924) Vilmos Huszar
  18. 18. De stijl1917-1931 “.. Only primary colors and non- colors, only squares and rectangles, only straight and horizontal or vertical lines.” - Piet Mondrian
  19. 19. De Stijl – “The Style” • Dutch artistic movement, founded in Netherlands. Also known as Neo-Plasticism. • Founders: Piet Mondrian & Theo van Doesburg. • Utopian idea of spiritual harmony & order. Simplified to vertical and horizontal lines. • Used only primary colors along with black and white. • Not to reflect reality but rather to express the harmony that they believed was the law of universe. • Their works of art helped the public along the path to truth and purity.
  20. 20. INFLUENCES •Frank Lloyd Wright – building appeared in magazine Wasmuth, 1910-11 •French cubists – with different vision of architecture and world •Walter Gropius – Fagus factory •Piet Mondrian – plain surfaces, neo-plasticism, abstract forms and primary colors, pictorial squared space , basic structures, clear geometrical system
  21. 21. De Stijl Magazine First Front Cover. 1917 - Vilmos Huszár • The group’s monthly journal called ‘De-Stijl’ started in 1917. • This longing for harmony developed in the chaotic times of WW1. • Journal continued to be printed until 1931 when Theo van Doesburg died.
  22. 22. MANIFESTO OF DE STIJL, 1918 • complex theoretical goal of new world order •Buildings should be radically simplified • principles of right-angle • Flat roofs and smooth surfaces • Primary colors: red, yellow, blue • Interpenetration of cubic volumes • quasi-sculptural experience • neo-plastical appearance, flat roof • plane surfaces, white plaster • revolutionary solutions for open- plan interiors
  23. 23. MANIFESTO OF DE STIJL
  24. 24. Theo van doesburg • Dutch artist. • Founder and Leader of De Stijl. • Complete abstraction of reality in his paintings. • He was more flamboyant and extravagant. • Split up with his colleague, Piet Mondrian in 1924 due to disagreements. 1883- 1931 Composition VII- The Three Graces, 1917
  25. 25. Theo van Doesburg Simultaneous Counter- Composition 1929 Counter Composition V, 1925.
  26. 26. Piet mondrian • Dutch Painter, theorist and draughtsman. His work marks the transition at the start of the 20th century from the Hague school and Symbolism to Neo- Impressionism and De Stijl. • Important contributor to De Stijl. • An introvert by nature. 1872- 1944 Composition with Grids: Checkerboard Composition with Light Colors - 1919
  27. 27. Piet mondrian Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow Neo Plastisicm - 1930 The essence of Mondrian’s ideas is that painting, composed of the most fundamental aspects of line and colour, must set an example to the other arts for achieving a society in which art as such has no place but belongs instead to the total realization of ‘beauty’.
  28. 28. COMPOSITION WITH YELLOW , BLUE , RED , 1937-42 , PIET MONDRIAN.
  29. 29. Gerrit rietveld • Dutch furniture designer and architect. • One of the principal members of De Stijl. • Famous for his Red and Blue chair design. • The chair was designed for the Rietveld Schroder House which is a UNESCO world heritage site. 1888- 1964 Red and Blue Chair - 1917
  30. 30. INTRODUCTION  De Stijl Dutch for "The Style", also known as neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917.  De Stijl is also the name of a journal that was published by the Dutch painter, designer, writer, and critic Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931)  Next to van Doesburg, the group's principal members were the painters Piet Mondrian (1872– 1944), Vilmos Huszár (1884–1960), and Bart van der Leck (1876–1958), and the architects Gerrit Rietveld (1888–1964), Robert van 't Hoff (1887– 1979), and J.J.P. Oud (1890–1963).  The artistic philosophy that formed a basis for the group's work is known as neoplasticism — the new plastic art (or Nieuwe Beelding in Dutch).
  31. 31. FORMING THE DE STIJL  They advocated pure abstraction and universality by a reduction to the essentials of form and colour; they simplified visual compositions to the vertical and horizontal directions, and used only primary colors along with black and white.  Around 1915, Van Doesburg started meeting the artists who would eventually become the founders of the journal. He first met Piet Mondrian at an exhibition in the Amsterdam Stedelijk Museum. Mondrian, who had moved to Paris in 1912 (and there, changed his name from "Mondriaan"), had been visiting the Netherlands when war broke out.  In 1915, Schoenmaekers published Het nieuwe wereldbeeld (The New Image of the World), followed in 1916 by Beginselen der beeldende wiskunde (Principles of Plastic Mathematics). These two publications would greatly influence Mondrian and other members of De Stijl.
  32. 32. INFLUENCE ON ARCHITECTURE  The Rietveld Schröder House—the only building realised completely according to the principles of De Stijl.  The De Stijl influence on architecture remained considerable long after 1931;  Mies van der Rohe was among the most important proponents of its ideas. Between 1923 and 1924, Rietveld designed the Rietveld Schröder House, the only building to have been created completely according to De Stijl principles.  Examples of Stijl-influenced works by J.J.P. Oud can be found in Rotterdam (Café De Unie) and Hoek van Holland.
  33. 33. STUDY FOR AN APARTMENT BUILDING, 1923, TEO VAN DOESBURG
  34. 34. STUDY FOR AN APARTMENT BUILDING, 1923, TEO VAN DOESBURG Multiform, abstract geometrical order Right-angled Combination of primary colors: blue, yellow, red Semi-philosophical analysis of the world and order Single color smooth plastered surfaces Walls that penetrates each other and step into the space Part of the endless growing space Interior and exterior are merged Triumph of abstract space Open plan – sliding panels and rectangular partitions, Interlocking planes
  35. 35. The Dutchman Gerrit Rietveld (1888- 1964) was one of the most important designers and architects of the 20th century. Gerrit Rietveld - 1888 - 1964 Bauhaus Architect and Modern Furniture Designer
  36. 36. Today his work is primarily associated with his two most famous designs, which have become icons of modernism: the Red-Blue Chair (1918/1923) and the Rietveld- Schröder House (1924).
  37. 37. The Rietveld Schröder House—the only building realised completely according to the principles of De Stijl.
  38. 38. Floating effect of the balcony, light balustrade, large glass corners, open space, flexibility, rectangular walls
  39. 39. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=pl ayer_embedded&v=qLHCYeswxuI
  40. 40. Red blue chair Originally designed in 1917-1918, the Red/blue chair had a natural wood finish (Beachwood and plywood construction). The original chair was constructed of unstained beech wood and was not painted until the early 1920s.
  41. 41. Red blue chair He later painted this revolutionary chair in 1921 as a result of his association with the De Stijl movement.
  42. 42. Red blue chair variations
  43. 43. Red blue chair elements
  44. 44. Red blue chair technical drawings
  45. 45. Red blue chair details
  46. 46. Red blue chair Traditional bamboo trusses show non intersecting beams and girders with protruding ends.
  47. 47. Red blue chair detail of rails
  48. 48. Rietveld writes as follows about his joints: •The ordinary doweled joint, by which the post takes the rail, is still used for nearly everything. It is a very satisfying method of working and it is a fine thing to see, for example a set of rails and posts with hole, peg and groove. •This jointing sometimes gives rise to an unintentional plain surface. •The jointing employed here was an obvious choice because of its simplicity and clarity of expression. •Moreover, it is particularly strong because the ends of the wood retain their full strength. •It requires very little time to produce, which makes it appropriate to modern labor conditions. •The greatest advantage is that it gives extreme freedom in the positioning of the rails, which achieve a greater expression of space, enabling one to break away from the constructional tied plane surface. Red blue chair
  49. 49. Red blue chair details http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEMcmWHqg9g Date : 1918 Country : Netherlands Materials : wood (lacquered). Style/Tradition : De Stijl Dimensions: 66x83x88cm (WxDxH) Colours : Black, red, blue and yellow
  50. 50. Café Aubette, Strasbourg, France, Theo Van Doesburg
  51. 51. Café Aubette, Strasbourg, France, Theo Van Doesburg •The Cafe Aubette, located in the central square of Strasbourg, is one of the most ambitious projects of the artistic avant-garde of the '20s, so much to be defined by the most enthusiastic as the "Sistine Chapel" of modern art. •The grandiose building, prior used for military purposes, came into possession of the Horn brothers in 1922, they wished to make it the meeting point of reference for the Strasbourg society. •When the Cofè Aubette's project was finished, Theo van Doesburg, responsible for making new, called it as the realization of unbridled imagination.
  52. 52. Café De Unie, De Stijl, Roterdam, 1925 •Café De Unie; Café; De Stijl; •Creation date: 1925; • Architect: J.J.P. Oud.
  53. 53. Café Aubette, Strasbourg, France, Theo Van Doesburg •J.J.P. Oud’s association with De Stijl lasted from 1917 to 1922. Oud was particularly interested in the technical and social aspects of architecture. He tried to create a new aesthetic by using modern techniques and building materials. The industrial production of building elements could be used in social housing to help solve the housing shortage and poor living conditions. •Oud and Van Doesburg were united in their interest in the convergence of different art forms. But there was one difference. Oud’s perspective was that of a master builder creating space for painting and sculpture, while Van Doesburg’s starting point was modern (abstract) painting, on which architecture and applied art had to focus.
  54. 54. Jacobus Johannes Peter Oud, Café De Unie façade, Rotterdam, 1925
  55. 55. Café De Unie, De Stijl, Roterdam, 1925
  56. 56. Café De Unie, De Stijl, Roterdam, 1925
  57. 57. Reconstruction, Mondrian’s Atelier at 26, rue du Départ, Paris - The atelier in 1926

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