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Management of Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH)

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Management of Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH)

  1. 1. Medical Management of Post-partum Hemorrhage (PPH)
  2. 2. PPH IS TRULY AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY KILLER BOTTOM LINE Averting Maternal Death is based on having a prepared mind, a prepared team & a full range of possible therapies
  3. 3. 200,000 women die from PPH each year** Our Best Estimate is A Gross Underestimate *International College of Midwives, 2003 **FIGO, 2003
  4. 4. Facts All pregnancies are at risk of PPH even if no predisposing factors are present
  5. 5. Post-Partum Hemorrhage (PPH) …… • Bleeding after childbirth • Life-threatening condition • Blood loss > 500 ml during a vaginal delivery or > 1,000 ml with a cesarean delivery.* *http://emedicine.medspsce.com/article/796785-overview
  6. 6. Why is PPH a concern ? *http://emedicine.medspsce.com/article/796785-overview Human Reproduction Research Collaborating Center (ICMR), J N Medical College, Balgaum, KA, India. • Important cause of maternal mortality • Accounting for nearly one quarter of all maternal deaths worldwide.* • India-The maternal mortality rate 35-56%560/100,000 live births & PPH accounts for 35-56% of Maternal deaths in India.**
  7. 7. Types of PPH http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/prevention-and-management-postpartum-haemorrhage-green-top-52 PPH can be divided into 2 types:  Primary postpartum hemorrhage: Occurs within 24 hours of delivery  Secondary postpartum hemorrhage: Occurs 24 hours to 6 weeks after delivery. Most cases (99%) of postpartum hemorrhage are primary
  8. 8. Why bleeding occurs ? …placental removal leaves a 20cm diameter wound that continues to bleed if uterine musculature does not contract and stay contracted
  9. 9. Aetiology http://emedicine.medspsce.com/article/796785-ove 4 T’s • Tone (Uterine Atony 75-90%) • Trauma (Surgical or assisted vaginal delivery) • Tissue (Retained Placenta) • Thrombosis (Congenital & acquired abnormal clotting abnormalities)
  10. 10. How much time do we have ? It is estimated that, if untreated, Death occurs on average in: 2 hours from Postpartum Hemorrhage 12 hours from Antepartum Hemorrhage 2 days from Obstructed Labor 6 days from Infection
  11. 11. J Nutr. 2001 Feb;131(2S-2):604S-614S; Degree of Anemia Accentuates Mortality Risk
  12. 12. Pitfalls in Assessing Quantity of Blood Loss
  13. 13. Medical Therapies
  14. 14. General Practice Active management of third stage of labor decreases PPH
  15. 15. Active management of Third Stage of Labor • Administering a uterus-contracting drug, e.g. Oxytocin, Misoprostol within one minute of birth • Applying controlled cord traction & counter traction to the uterus • Massaging the fundus of the uterus through the abdomen • Monitoring for further signs of bleeding
  16. 16. Management of Third Stage of Labor Blood Loss * > 500 mls Blood loss * > 1000 mls Expectant (n=3126) 13.6% 2.6% Active (n=3158)** 5.2% 1.7% * Clinical estimation generally thought to be underestimates by about 34-50% **Oxytocin, Ergometrine or both IM/IV Prendiville, Elbourne, McDonald, The Cochrane Library issue 3, 2003 Active Vs Expectant Management
  17. 17. Management of PPH First line of Therapy Uterotonic agents  Oxytocin  Ergot-alkaloids (Ergometrine, Methyl Ergonovine)  Prostaglandins (Dinoprostone, Misoprostol) D C Dutta. Text book of Obstetrics.5th Edn. 2001. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003249. Second Line of Therapy  Surgical Interventions e.g. artery ligation  Radiological embolisation  Haemostatic drugs e.g. Tranexamic acid
  18. 18. Oxytocin http://www.uspharmacist.com/content/d/in-service/c/28279/ • Oxytocin is a synthetic form of the nanopeptide produced in the posterior pituitary. • It stimulates the (upper) active segment of the myometrium to contract rhythmically, which constricts spiral arteries & decreases blood flow through the uterus. • Clinical response is rapid & occurs within 3 to 5 minutes. • Side effects are very rare, but occasional causes nausea & vomiting. • The only serious side effect is dilutional hyponatremia, which may happen with prolonged use. • Rapid IV infusion is associated with hypotension & tachycardia. • Oxytocin is dosed at 10 to 40 U/L .
  19. 19. Carboprost http://www.uspharmacist.com/content/d/in-service/c/28279/ • It is synthetic prostaglandin analogue of PGF2α which enhance uterine contractility and cause vasoconstriction • IM dosing, initial: 250 mcg; if needed, may repeat at 15- to 90- minute intervals; maximum total dose, 2 mg (8 doses). • In 75% of cases, a successful clinical response is reached within 30 min. • The reported side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bronchospasm, & hypertension. • The recommendation is that the drug be given with caution to patients with hepatic or cardiovascular disease, asthma, or hypersensitivity to the drug. • Clinical response may be enhanced with concomitant use of oxytocin.
  20. 20. Methylergonovine Maleate http://www.uspharmacist.com/content/d/in-service/c/28279/ • It is a semisynthetic ergot alkaloid. • It causes generalized smooth-muscle contraction in which the upper and lower segments of the uterus contract tetanically. • It is available as 0.2mg tablets & is used 0.2mg 3 to 4 times/day in the puerperium for 2 to 7 days. • Side effects are very rare, but occasional causes nausea & vomiting. • This drug should be used with extreme caution in patients with hypertension or preeclampsia, especially if ephedrine (a vasoconstrictive agent) is already given. • Onset of action (tablet) is within 5 to 10 minutes • Onset of the IM dose is 2 to 5 minutes
  21. 21. Misoprostol *Med Res Rev. 1990 Apr-Jun;10(2):149-72 • Synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue • Initially developed for oral use • Other routes of administration Sub-lingual, Rectal, vaginal & Buccal Approved for PPH • India • Bangladesh • Nepal • Russia • Uganda • Nigeria • Ethiopia • Somalia • Ghana • Kenya - - Countries - -
  22. 22. Misoprostol - - - FIGO
  23. 23. • Standard management# with 600mcg Misoprostol lowered maternal mortality by 81%.** • Oral Misoprostol was associated with significant ↓ in the rate of acute PPH and mean blood loss. *** *Int Congr Series 1279 (2005) 358–363 **Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010 Mar;108(3):289-94. ***Lancet.2006;368(9543):1248-53 #Standard management defined as delivery attendance by a village health worker without administration of medication.  Thermostable  Affordable uterotonic agent compared with other  Ease of administration  Useful in poor resource sources – skilled workers Misoprostol Advantages
  24. 24. Clinical Guidance The WHO recommends the use of Misoprostol in settings where it is not possible to use Oxytocin or another injectable uterotonic such as Ergometrine or an Oxytocin and Ergometrine fixed-dose combination. WHO Statement regarding the use of misoprostol for postpartum haemorrhage prevention and treatment. 2009. Ref No: WHO/RHR/09.22 In the absence of personnel to offer active management of the 3rd stage of labour, it is recommended that the trained health worker should offer Misoprostol 600mcg orally immediately after the birth of the baby.
  25. 25. • Current data supports the use of Misoprostol in PPH. • Safe & Effective treatment option in management of PPH. • Oxytocin is a gold standard treatment in PPH. • Increasing clinical evidences suggest Misoprostol as an alternative to Oxytocin.
  26. 26. RCOG guideline. 2009; Green top guideline 52: 1-24  Secondary PPH is often associated with endometritis. When antibiotics are clinically indicated, a combination of Ampicillin (Clindamycin if penicillin allergic) & Metronidazole is appropriate.  In cases of endomyometritis (tender uterus) or overt sepsis, then the addition of Gentamicin is recommended.  Surgical measures should be undertaken if there is excessive or continuing bleeding, irrespective of ultrasound findings.  A senior obstetrician should be involved in decisions & performance of any evacuation of retained products of conception as these women are carrying a high risk for uterine perforation. How should secondary PPH be treated?
  27. 27. RCOG guideline. 2009; Green top guideline 52: 1-24  It is generally accepted that secondary PPH is often associated with infection & conventional treatment involves antibiotics & uterotonics.  In continuing haemorrhage, insertion of balloon catheter may be effective.  A combination of Clindamycin & Gentamicin is appropriate; for Gentamicin, daily dosing regimens are at least as effective as thrice daily regimens; once uncomplicated endometritis has clinically improved with intravenous therapy, there is no additional benefit from extended oral therapy.  This antibiotic therapy does not contraindicate breastfeeding. How should secondary PPH be treated?
  28. 28. Interventional Therapies
  29. 29. Bimanual Compression
  30. 30. Internal Uterine Tamponade
  31. 31. Non-Inflatable Anti-Shock Garment
  32. 32. Surgical Interventions
  33. 33. B-Lynch “Brace” Suture
  34. 34. Hypogastric Artery Ligation
  35. 35. Pelvic Packing
  36. 36. Embolisation
  37. 37. Recommendations for All Hospitals • Use the BRASS drape in all deliveries • Perform PPH drills on all shifts with each new group of interns, residents and nurses • Place large posters of B-Lynch brace suture technique on wall of each OR • Develop SWAT team approach with bleeding >1000cc on responsive to simple therapy
  38. 38. Save mother’s lives
  39. 39. Thank You for your patience !!!