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Introduction to HTML5 and CSS3 (revised)

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Introduction to HTML5 and CSS3 (revised)

  1. 1. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Introduction to HTML5 & CSS3 Joseph R. Lewis, Sandia National Laboratories InterLab Conference, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, November 1st, 2010, SAND №2010-7567C
  2. 2. Get set up for playing along • Your favorite code editor. Suggestions: • TextMate or E – check for HTML5 bundles on GitHub • Dreamweaver CS5 11.0.3 update • Latest versions of these browsers: • Firefox 4 (beta) http://www.mozilla.com/en- US/firefox/beta/ • Chrome http://www.google.com/chrome • Opera http://www.opera.com/ • (optional) Safari http://www.apple.com/safari/ • (optional) IE9 http://www.microsoft.com/ie9 • (optional) WebKit http://webkit.org/
  3. 3. About Me • Joseph R. Lewis • Chief Web Architect, Sandia National Laboratories • Web development for 13 years • Author, AdvancED CSS and Foundation Website Creation
  4. 4. What we will cover • As much HTML5 and CSS3 as we can! • Some time for exercises. • Other topics may be introduced and left for you to explore later. • Will skip a few things that are either deeply in flux or not relevant to National Lab/Science application (i.e. Ruby) • Focus on practical things you can get started with now, with a taste of what is to come!
  5. 5. Agenda • HTML5 • History and Overview • Semantic Elements • Forms • SVG and MathML • Canvas • WAI-ARIA (Accessibility) • Video and Audio • Offline Storage • Drag & Drop • Messages, Workers, & Sockets • Geolocation • CSS3 • Selectors • Borders • Backgrounds • Color • Text & Web Fonts • Transitions, Transforms, Animation
  6. 6. HTML5 and CSS3 Appetizers • CanvasMol: http://alteredqualia.com/canvasmo l/ • The Wilderness Downtown: http://www.thewildernessdowntow n.com/ • Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/ • Apple: http://www.apple.com/html5/ • Google: http://www.html5rocks.com/ • MSFT: http://www.beautyoftheweb.com/ • HTML5 Pac Man: http://arandomurl.com/2010/07/25/ html5-pacman.html • Quake: http://code.google.com/p/quake2- gwt-port/ • IE9 Platform Preview 6: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= ZOcTdhvBVeA • Oh and Google, NY Times, YouTube, National Geographic, Vimeo, CNN, and many, many others.
  7. 7. Why HTML5 & CSS3? Why Now? • Microsoft, Apple, Mozilla, Google, Facebook, YouTube, Vimeo, etc. – all fully committed to HTML5 as the future of the web. • HTML5 represents a more practical, more semantic, more functional web. • CSS3 makes common visual elements easy, programmatic, not image-based. • Browser support for HTML5+CSS3 today: • Excellent for Safari, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, IE9 • Practical strategies exist for older browsers.
  8. 8. The long journey to HTML5
  9. 9. History of HTML • Why? So we can understand why certain decisions were made, and why things are the way they are. • W3C & HTML up to v4.01 • Browser wars – vendors trying to one-up each other on features • Standards process at the W3C – debate, committees, specifications • “Shipping code wins”
  10. 10. The reasoning behind XHTML • XML was seen as the future of the web • XHTML was intended to function as a ‘transition’ on the path to XML
  11. 11. Why XHTML was doomed • No backwards compatibility • Fussy XML interpretation • Strict adherence to MIME types • text/html vs. application/xhtml+xml • Browsers all allow text/html • application/xhtml+xml broke IE
  12. 12. Enter WHATWG and HTML5 • Opera, Mozilla, and Apple, presented competing vision of evolution of HTML at W3C workshop in 2004. Voted down. • Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) formed to continue work outside W3C. • In 2007, W3C creates HTML working group with HTML5 as the foundation. • In 2009, The W3C discontinued the XHTML 2.0 working group in favor of HTML5.
  13. 13. Principles of HTML5 • Backwards compatibility • Well-defined, non-draconian error handling • Practical applications and usage • Embracement of JavaScript interaction with markup • Open process
  14. 14. Two homes for HTML5 • W3C spec: http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/ • W3C Editor’s Draft: http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html • WHATWG version: http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current- work/multipage/
  15. 15. Exercise №1: Discuss HTML5 • Discuss as a group how we got to HTML5. • What do you all think about having two versions of HTML5? • What have you heard about the debate? • When do you think you might start using HTML5 in your own code?
  16. 16. Let’s learn some HTML5!
  17. 17. Doctype, the old way: <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml 1-transitional.dtd">
  18. 18. Doctype, the HTML5 way: <!DOCTYPE html>
  19. 19. Defining a character set • Why? Text rendering + Security concern: http://code.google.com/p/doctype/wiki/ArticleUtf7 • In the old days, we used Latin 1: <meta http- equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">, or whatever regional character set was necessary for your language (i.e. Big-5 for traditional Chinese). • Unicode makes individual character sets unnecessary: <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
  20. 20. Charset in HTML5 <meta charset="utf-8">
  21. 21. Lose the quotes for single value attributes <meta charset=utf-8> (Also note that /> closings for standalone tags are needed for XHTML5 only)
  22. 22. The HTML element, the old XHTML way <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
  23. 23. The HTML element, HTML5 style <html lang="en-us"> • Lang attributes are used by search engines, speech synthesizers, and browsers for regional hyphenation and spelling correction. • List of codes: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en- us/library/ms533052(VS.85).aspx
  24. 24. Your basic HTML5 structure <!DOCTYPE html> <html lang="en-us"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <title>My Page Title</title> </head> <body> <p>My awesome web page.</p> </body> </html>
  25. 25. The new HTML5 elements • datalist • keygen • output • ruby, rt, and rp • wbr • embed • command • details • article • aside • figure • footer • header • hgroup • nav • section • mark • meter • progress • time • canvas • video
  26. 26. New HTML5 Attributes • To many to catch them all here, but just a few to mention up front include: • placeholder – placeholder text in forms • autofocus – assigns focus to text fields • contenteditable – makes a given element editable. Try it. • reversed – works on <ol> to reverse numbering.
  27. 27. Changed HTML5 elements • <a> can now wrap around block elements • <b> and <i> are back. • <cite> defined to be the title of a work* • <hr> is now a “paragraph-level thematic break” • <small> is for small print, i.e. legal boilerplate
  28. 28. Removed elements • basefont • big • center • font • strike • tt • u • frame • frameset • noframes • acronym is now abbr • applet is now object
  29. 29. Typical HTML Page Structure <div id="header"> <h1>Tales of Woe</h1> <p class="tagline">The neverending saga continues...</p> <div id="nav"> <h2>Navigation</h2> <ul> <li><a href="one.html">Page One</a></li> <li><a href="two.html">Page Two</a></li> <li><a href="three.html">Page the Third</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="article"> <h2>The Stagnant Staircase</h2> <p>It was a dark and stormy night...</p> </div> <div id="footer"> <p>©2010 In Your Nightmares Productions.</p> </div>
  30. 30. How HTML 4-style structure might look div id=header div id=nav Banner text + tagline div id=articlediv id=sidebar Headings & content Headings & content div id=footer
  31. 31. Typical HTML5 Page Structure <header> <hgroup> <h1>Tales of Woe</h1> <h2>The neverending saga continues...</h2> </hgroup> <nav> <h2>Navigation</h2> <ul> <li><a href="one.html">Page One</a></li> <li><a href="two.html">Page Two</a></li> <li><a href="three.html">Page the Third</a></li> </ul> </nav> </header> <article> <h2>The Stagnant Staircase</h2> <p>It was a dark and stormy night...</p> </article> <footer> <p>©2010 In Your Nightmares Productions.</p> </footer>
  32. 32. Structural elements in HTML5 <header> <nav> <hgroup> <article><aside> <section> <section> <footer>
  33. 33. Sectioning off headings <section> <h1>Homininae</h1> <section> <h1>Gorillini</h1> <section> <h1>Gorilla gorilla</h1> <section> <h1>Gorilla gorilla gorilla</h1> <h1>Gorilla gorilla diehli</h1> </section> <h1>Gorilla beringei</h1> <section> <h1>Gorilla beringei beringei</h1> <h1>Gorilla beringei graueri</h1> </section> </section> </section> <section> <h1>Hominini</h1> <section> <h1>Pan</h1> <section> <h1>Pan traglodytes</h1> <section> <h1>Pan troglodytes troglodytes</h1> <h1>Pan troglodytes verus</h1> <h1>Pan troglodytes vellerosus</h1> <h1>Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii</h1> </section> <h1>Pan paniscus</h1> </section> </section> </section> <section> <h1>Homo</h1> <section> <h1>Homo sapiens</h1> <section> <h1>Homo sapiens sapiens</h1> </section> </section> </section> </section>
  34. 34. Sectioning results: Homininae Gorillini Gorilla gorilla Gorilla gorilla gorilla Gorilla gorilla diehli Gorilla beringei Gorilla beringei beringei Gorilla beringei graueri Hominini Pan Pan traglodytes Pan troglodytes troglodytes Pan troglodytes verus Pan troglodytes vellerosus Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii Pan paniscus Homo Homo sapiens Homo sapiens sapiens
  35. 35. Go Figure <figure> <img src="Viola.jpg"></video> <figcaption>This is a lovely Amati 1710 viola.</figcaption> </figure>
  36. 36. <aside> of bacon <aside> <h2>Definitions</h2> <dl> <dt>Bacon</dt> <dd>Meat candy.</dd> <dd>Slang for ‘money’</dd> </dl> </aside> • Inside an article: related to the content (i.e. infobox) • Outside an article: content relevant to the page itself (i.e. sidebar)
  37. 37. Exercise №2: HTML5 Structure 1. Create HTML5 markup for a blog home page. 2. Install the HTML5 Outliner bookmarklet or Chrome extension: http://code.google.com/p/h5o/ 3. Make some headings. Play around with <hgroup>, <heading>, and <h1>-<h6>. (biological classifications & org charts work really well…) 4. Check your work in H5O! 5. Check your work in Unicorn: http://validator.w3.org/unicorn/ 6. Write CSS rules that target your new HTML5 elements. Do not use classes or IDs in your selectors.
  38. 38. XML applications in HTML5 • SVG and MathML are available in HTML5 • Browser support: Firefox 4 works, WebKit mostly works, other browsers in progress • Namespaces are not required • Very useful in scientific contexts • Protovis • Those needing other XML apps will want to use XHTML5 instead.
  39. 39. SVG Example №1 <svg width="300px" height="300px"> <rect x="10px" y="10px" width="250px" height="250px" fill="red" stroke="black" stroke-width="10px"/> </svg>
  40. 40. SVG Example №2 <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <title>The Sun in SVG</title> </head> <body> <h1>The Sun in SVG</h1> <svg style="width:300px; height:300px;"> <radialGradient cx="0.5" cy="0.5" r="0.5" id="g"> <stop stop-color="rgb(255, 255, 0)" offset="0"/> <stop stop-color="rgb(255, 221, 51)" offset="0.7"/> <stop stop-color="rgb(254, 140, 25)" offset="0.7"/> <stop stop-color="rgb(0, 0, 0)" offset="1"/> </radialGradient> <rect width="100%" height="100%" fill="url(#g)"/> </svg> </body> </html>
  41. 41. MathML Example <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <title>The Dirac &delta;- function</title> </head> <body> <h1>The Dirac &delta;- function</h1> <math style="font- size:200%"> <mrow> <msubsup> <mo>&int;</mo> <mrow> <mrow> <mo>-</mo> <mi>&infin;</mi> </mrow> </mrow> <mi>&infin;</mi> </msubsup> <mrow> <mi>f</mi> <mi>&delta;</mi> </mrow> </mrow> <mo>=</mo> <mrow> <mo>f</mo> <mfenced> <mrow> <mn>0</mn> </mrow> </mfenced> </mrow> </math> </body> </html>
  42. 42. Exercise №3: SVG & MathML • Create an SVG or MathML object within an HTML5 page. • Search the web for existing SVG examples images (Wikipedia has tons) or MathML formulas and paste the content in to your HTML5 document. • Try modifying some of the SVG or MathML elements or values to see what happens. • Try applying some CSS to it. • View in Firefox 4. Compare to other browsers. • Discuss the results.
  43. 43. The Canvas Element • Scriptable rendering of images • Introduced in WebKit – later found in Opera and Gecko • Compare to SVG: • Performance better on Canvas. • SVG is XML, whereas Canvas is mostly JS. • SVG has DOM access. • Canvas is more bitmap-focused. SVG is vector- focused. • What else?
  44. 44. Basic Canvas <canvas id="example" width="250" height="250"> Default text </canvas> • CSS possible instead of width and height attributes • Default text used for agents that can’t interpret <canvas>
  45. 45. A patch of green <canvas> <script> function draw() { var canvas = document.getElementById("canvas"); if (canvas.getContext) { var ctx = canvas.getContext("2d"); ctx.fillStyle = "rgb(0,255,0)"; ctx.fillRect (10, 10, 220, 220); } } </script> <body onload="draw();"> <canvas id="canvas" width="250" height="250">This should be a green square.</canvas> </body>
  46. 46. Exercise №4: Canvas 1. Check out the developer tutorials • MDC Canvas Tutorial: https://developer.mozilla.org/e n/Canvas_tutorial • Dive into HTML5: http://diveintohtml5.org/canvas .html • Opera tutorial: http://dev.opera.com/articles/vi ew/html-5-canvas-the-basics/ • Standardista: http://www.standardista.com/c anvas-tutorial 2. Make an HTML5 page with your own Canvas. Start with a box. Try a circle. Take it from there. Try drawing a bar graph, pie chart, etc. 3. Discuss where Canvas would be useful. How about SVG? What about plain-old images? Text?
  47. 47. ARIA in HTML5 • ARIA: Accessible Rich Internet Applications • API to enable assistive technologies access to application controls (i.e. this image is a check box) • Targets HTML, browser functionality, JavaScript/Ajax • Places accessibility hooks in HTML attributes. • Uses the aria- attribute prefix • Support in IE, Firefox, Opera, Chrome, Safari, principal screen reader vendors, Dojo, YUI, jQuery
  48. 48. ARIA in HTML5 Example <ul id="tree1" role="tree" tabindex="0" aria- labelledby="label_1"> <li role="treeitem" tabindex="-1" aria-expanded="true"> Hominids</li> <li role="group"> <ul> <li role="treeitem" tabindex="-1"> Neandertal</li> <li role="treeitem" tabindex="-1"> Homo Sapiens</li> </ul> </li> </ul>
  49. 49. ARIA resources • Bruce Lawson’s Redesigning with HTML5 and ARIA http://www.brucelawson.co.uk/2009/redesigning- with-html-5-wai-aria/ • WAI-ARIA Overview: http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/aria.php • WAI-ARIA Primer: http://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria- primer/ • ARIA basics at Standardista.com: http://www.standardista.com/standards/wai-aria- accessible-rich-internet-applications-basics
  50. 50. Exercise №4: Discuss Accessibility • How are you approaching accessibility in your program work? • Do you have any specific accessibility problems that you’ve tried to address? • What do you think is the right way to approach accessibility? Full 508 compliance? Best effort? Is this part of your workflow?
  51. 51. HTML5 New Form Features • New attributes • required • autofocus • placeholder • form • New input types: • Email • Date • Range • Search • Tel • Color • Number • New input types will fall back to type="text" • New Elements • <meter> • <progress> • <output> • Be sure to check out Estelle Weyl’s presentation on HTML5 forms Wednesday!
  52. 52. New <input> attributes • min • max • multiple • pattern • step • autocomplete • autofocus • required
  53. 53. The required attribute • Use on form elements: • <input type="text" name="moof" required="required" /> • Or to be more pithy: <input type=text name=moof required> • The aria-required attribute flags input for assistive devices. • CSS selectors: • [required] { background-color: whitesmoke; } • :invalid { background-color: #F66; }
  54. 54. Going outside the <form> • Use the form attribute to link elements to forms: <form id=profile> Enter your <input type="email" name="email" placeholder="email address">. </form> <textarea form=profile> Now tell us more about you. </textarea>
  55. 55. email, url, tel, and placeholder • <input placeholder="mickey@example.gov" type=email name=email> • <input placeholder="http://www.sandia.gov" type=url name=url> • <input placeholder="555-867-5309" type=tel name=tel>
  56. 56. It’s a <date> <input type=date name=date> Variants: month, week, time, datetime, datetime-local Safari: Opera:
  57. 57. The pattern attribute • Regular expressions FTW http://xkcd.com/208/ <input type=email name="email" pattern="b[A-Z0-9._%+-]+@[A- Z0-9.-]+.[A-Z]{2,4}b">
  58. 58. Exercise №5: Forms 1. Make a form using some of the new HTML5 form elements! 2. Test your work in various browsers. How do the form elements behave between the different browsers? What works and what doesn’t? 3. Be sure to see Estelle Weyl’s presentation on Wednesday!
  59. 59. Audio & Video <audio id="bach" src="Brandenburg3.mp3" controls></audio> JS API: document.getElementById("bach").muted = true; <video id="lenny" src="Bernstein.webm" autoplay controls></video> JS API: document.getElementById("lenny").play();
  60. 60. Embed video, the old way <object width="400" height="300"> <param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/ddO9idmax0o"></par am> <param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param> <param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param> <embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/ddO9idmax0o" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="300"></embed> </object>
  61. 61. Problems with the old way • Code is complex, confusing • Relies on 3rd party plug-in • Plug-in layout is monopolized – can’t draw objects on top of it.
  62. 62. <video> in HTML5 <video src=Bach.mp4></video>
  63. 63. Easiest way to support pre-<video> UAs <video src=Bach.ogv autoplay> Get the <a href=Bach.ogv>Bach video here!</a> </video>
  64. 64. Did you notice something different • Ogg Vorbis vs H.264 • Apple Safari and Microsoft IE9 support H.264 • Mozilla Firefox and Opera support Ogg Vorbis • Google Chrome supports both • VP8/webM will be supported by all but Safari • The debate… • The autoplay attribute – works as advertised
  65. 65. Handling <video> sources <video controls autoplay> <source src=bach.mp4 type='video/mp4; codecs="avc1.42E01E, mp4a.40.2"'> <source src=bach.ogv type='video/ogg; codecs="theora, vorbis"'> <p>Get the Bach video in <a href=Bach.ogv>Ogg</a> or <a href=Bach.mp4>MP4</a>.</p> </video>
  66. 66. Handle HTML5+Flash • YouTube • Vimeo • Brightcove • Silverlight • Use <embed> within <video> (ugh.) • Video for everybody! http://camendesign.com/code/video_for_everybody
  67. 67. Handling Flash fallback <video controls autoplay> <source src=leverage-a-synergy.mp4 type='video/mp4; codecs="avc1.42E01E, mp4a.40.2"'> <source src=leverage-a-synergy.ogv type='video/ogg; codecs="theora, vorbis"'> <embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/ddO9idmax0o" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="300"></embed> </video>
  68. 68. Delivering lo-fi video to mobile <video> <source src=Bach-highrez.ogv media="(min-device-width: 800px)"> <source src=Bach-lorez.ogv> </video>
  69. 69. <audio> is just as easy <audio src="bach.mp3">
  70. 70. Exercise №6: Try out some video • Find some royalty-free or freely embedded video on the web. • Create a page that embeds the video. • Experiment with applying attributes such as autoplay and controls. • Experiment with applying CSS to the <video> element. • Discuss the issues around <audio> and <video> vs Flash, Silverlight, and what to expect in the future.
  71. 71. The Semantic Web and HTML5 • Microdata – part of the HTML5 spec • Microformats – not part of the spec, but widely implemented • RDFa – not part of the spec. • HTML5+RDFa is it’s own draft: http://dev.w3.org/html5/rdfa/ • Heated debate • Rel attributes, time and other basics already covered
  72. 72. Rel attributes <link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" href="http://myblog.com/feed"> <link rel="icon" href="/favicon.ico"> <link rel="pingback" href="http://example.gov/xmlrpc.php"> <link rel="prefetch" href="prefetch.rb"> <a rel="archives" href="http://example.gov/archives">Archives</a> <a rel="external" href="http://example.gov">For more info</a> <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">Attribution License</a> <a rel="nofollow" href="http://example.com/sample">Other site</a> <a rel="tag" href="http://example.gov/tag/nanotubes">Carbon nanotube articles</a>
  73. 73. Microdata example <section itemscope itemtype="http://example.org/instruments#strings"> <h1 itemprop="name http://example.com/fn">Viola</h1> <p itemprop="desc">Alto instrument in the string family. Music is typically in <span itemprop="http://example.com/clef">alto</span> clef. They are made of <span itemprop="http://example.com/material">wood</span>. </p> <img itemprop="img" src=”viola.png" alt="" title=”Matteo Gofriller viola, 1710"> </section>
  74. 74. When to use Semantic Web Structures • Use Microformats for common pieces of data • hCard • hCalendar • hAtom, hResume, hRecipe • Use RDFa or microdata when you need self- describing data structures • Scientific data • Google supports all three. • Your web service might pick one or two.
  75. 75. HTML+RDFa 1.1 • Support for RDFa in HTML5 - http://dev.w3.org/html5/rdfa/ • Separate spec • Best served as XHTML? • Use it when you need RDF, where microdata is insufficient.
  76. 76. HTML+RDFa example <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" prefix="cal: http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/ical# xsd: http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"> <head><title>Events</title></head> <body> <p typeof="cal:Vevent”> <span property="cal:summary”>Montiverdi Vespers</span> <span property="cal:dtstart” content="2010-10-31T18:00:00-05:00” datatype="xsd:dateTime"> October 31, 6pm</span> </p> </body> </html>
  77. 77. Microformats in HTML5 • Microformats in HTML5 is a future-looking effort. Not stable at the present. • Some elements such as <time> and <article> might be more helpful to microformats than when using the current conventions. • Using data-* is explicitly not for microformats or anything else other than custom data structures. Browsers will never do anything special with data-* • Currently hCard and XFN have no compatibility issues with HTML5. Other microformats may need examination in the HTML5 context.
  78. 78. Exercise №7: Semantic Web • Make an hCard in an HTML5 web page. • Create some data-* attributes. Discuss what you came up with and how your data might be used. • Write some CSS that targets your data-* attributes! Maybe give it a purple background color with green text. On second thought – I’m sure you can come up with a better idea… • Discuss the issues around microformats, microdata, and RDFa.
  79. 79. Cache manifest • Tells browser what to get from cache when offline • Invoke in HTML element: <html manifest="my.manifest”> CACHE MANIFEST CACHE: logo.png offlinestyles.css appfunctions.js FALLBACK: backup-appfunctions.js NETWORK: ping.js
  80. 80. HTML5 JS APIs: Selectors • Select class 'activerow': getElementsByClassName('activerow'); • CSS3 selectors: querySelectorAll("section li:nth-of-type(2n+1)"); • Classes, operators: querySelectorAll("aside.feature > img");
  81. 81. HTML5 JS APIs: Web Storage & SQL DB • Offline data store • Modified syntax for easy use • http://slides.html5rocks.com/#slide7 • Web SQL • Use full SQL syntax • Supported in WebKit, Opera • http://slides.html5rocks.com/#slide8
  82. 82. HTML5 JS APIs: Web workers • Enables multithreaded web applications • Dramatic increase in app performance • Before web workers, JS performance was dependent on single call/response thread. • Server configuration
  83. 83. HTML5 JS APIs: Web Sockets • Very useful for messaging • IM-style communications • back and forth exchange in real time
  84. 84. HTML5 JS APIs: Notifications • System (browser) alert notifications • Nicer presentation than alert()
  85. 85. HTML5 JS APIs: Drag and Drop <ol ondragstart="dragStartHandler(event)"> <li draggable="true" data-value="violin">Violin</li> <li draggable="true" data-value="viola">Viola</li> <li draggable="true" data-value="cello">Cello</li> </ol> <script> var internalDNDType = 'text/x-strings’; function dragStartHandler(event) { if (event.target instanceof HTMLLIElement) { event.dataTransfer.setData(internalDNDType, event.target.dataset.value); event.effectAllowed = 'move'; } else { event.preventDefault(); } } </script>
  86. 86. HTML5 related JS API: Geolocation • http://www.standardista.com/html5/introduction-to- geolocation
  87. 87. CSS3 • CSS3 organized into separate modules • Easier to implement • Some parts will be done before others • Will be done when implementations exist and vendor extensions are no longer necessary • But it’s OK to use vendor extensions: • -moz- • -webkit- • -o- • -ms-
  88. 88. Browser support for CSS3 • WebKit browsers: Safari and Chrome have excellent support for CSS3 • Mobile WebKit makes particularly effective use of CSS3, including hardware acceleration in animation. • Firefox (Gecko): Very good as of 4.0 beta, with some implementations in 3.5+ • Opera (Presto): Very good in recent versions. • IE (Trident): Very good in IE9. • Design for enhanced/extra functionality and design in browsers that support CSS3.
  89. 89. CSS3 Color • RGBa – adds the alpha value to RGB, any decimal value from 0 to 1 (.5 = 50%) • HSL – hue, saturation, luminosity • HSLa – HSL with an alpha value • Opacity • Gradients
  90. 90. HSL <style type="text/css"> div { width:30px; height:60px; float:left; border:2px outset #666; } div#red { background-color: hsl(0, 100%, 50%) } div#green { background-color: hsl(120, 100%, 50%) } div#blue { background-color: hsl(240, 100%, 50%) } div#black { background-color: hsl(0, 100%, 0%) } div#maroon { background-color: hsl(0, 100%, 35%) } div#pink { background-color: hsl(0, 100%, 80%) } div#white { background-color: hsl(0, 100%, 100%) } </style>
  91. 91. HSLa & RGBa div#red { background-color: hsla(0, 100%, 50%, 1) } /* solid red */ div#green { background-color: rgba(0, 255, 0, 0.7) } div#blue { background-color: hsla(240, 100%, 50%, 0.6) } div#black { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5) } /* gray 50% see-thru */ div#maroon { background-color: hsla(0, 100%, 35%, 0.4) } div#pink { background-color: rgba(255, 153, 153, 0.3) } div#white { background-color: hsla(0, 100%, 100%, 0) } /* invisible */
  92. 92. Opacity body { background: url(eagbd.gif) no-repeat; } div { width:30px; height:60px; float:left; border:2px outset #666; opacity: 0.7; } div#red { background-color: hsl(0, 100%, 50%) } div#green { background-color: hsl(120, 100%, 50%) } div#blue { background-color: hsl(240, 100%, 50%) } div#black { background-color: hsl(0, 100%, 0%) } div#maroon { background-color: hsl(0, 100%, 35%) } div#pink { background-color: hsl(0, 100%, 80%) } div#white { background-color: hsl(0, 100%, 100%) }
  93. 93. Exercise №8: Color 1. Make three uniquely-marked-up boxes using your favorite HTML5 element. (<div> is an HTML5 element>) 2. Enter some text into each box. 3. Color the background of the first box using HSL, the second box using HSLa, and the third using RGBa. 4. Use absolute positioning to make the three boxes partially overlap and apply opacity to one or more of the boxes to make the box below it show through partially. 5. Experiment with different values. What happens? 6. How do the various browsers behave?
  94. 94. Selectors • Allow more fine-grained, conditional control over how elements are targeted. • EXTREMELY useful for querySelectorAll(); • New patterns: • General sibling combinator (GSC) ~ • Attribute matching selectors • Pseudo-classes
  95. 95. Markup for the GSC example <body> <h1>The Violas of Rome</h1> <p>It was the best of times, it was the worst of times. It was a dark and stormy night.</p> <p>Her heart was racing as she walked towards the stairs. No-one would play her viola again. The nightmares would end - tonight.</p> <h2>A soldier's tale</h2> <p>It all began many years ago, in a small hamlet by the seaside. Her cousins would knock at the door and they'd go into the village to see their aunt at the shop. Never in her life would she suspect that the hamlet would be the very place that they would come first - the druids that came in from the sea.</p> <p>That Saturday was Salame and Cheese night. Would she be able to tell her girlfriends the sad truth about her nightmares?</p> <aside> <p>As an aside, we should note that one should never trouble trouble unless trouble troubles you.</p> </aside> </body>
  96. 96. General Sibling Combinator h1 ~ p { font-weight: bold; } h2 ~ p { font-style: italic; font-weight: normal; }
  97. 97. CSS3 Attribute Matching Selectors • E[instrument^="bass"] – selects any attribute beginning with the string “bass”. • E[instrument$="bass"] – selects any attribute ending with the string “bass”. • E[instrument*="bass"] – selects any attribute beginning with the string “bass”. • String ‘bass’ – no pun intended… ;)
  98. 98. Pseudo-Classes • E:root – selects the root element. Not a big deal for HTML, but huge for styling XML where the root element may be unknown. • E:nth-child(n) selects the “nth” child of the given element’s parent. • The (n) part is an expression with a prototype of an+b, in which the “an” part defines the frequency of any repeating that may occur, and the +b part is a modifier that indicates on which order of the nodes the counting begins. • The an part or the +b part may each exist on their own, and the operator in between the two may be a plus or minus symbol. • The keywords odd and even may be used as well.
  99. 99. More Pseudo-Classes • E:nth-last-child(n) – This pseudo-selector works just like E:nth-child in reverse, counting back from the last child. • E:nth-of-type(n) – This pseudo-selector works similar to:nth-child, but only selects elements that are of the same type.
  100. 100. E:nth-of-type example img:nth-of-type(2n+1) { float: right; margin-left:2em; } img:nth-of-type(2n) { float: left; margin-right:2em; }
  101. 101. More pseudo-selectors (to check out later) • E:nth-last-of-type(n) • E:last-child • E:first-of-type • E:last-of-type • E:only-child • E:only-of-type • E:empty • E:target • E:enabled, E:disabled, and E:checked • E::selection • E:not(s)
  102. 102. Exercise №9: Selectors 1. Write or steal some markup with repeated elements, such as a news article with several paragraphs, an unordered list, or a table. 2. Use some of the new selectors you’ve just learned to create typographic styles. Don’t worry about aesthetics – the goal here is to experiment!
  103. 103. Word wrap .broken { word-wrap:break-word; } .unbroken { word-wrap: normal; }
  104. 104. CSS3 Text Shadows .quote { text-shadow: 2px 2px 4px #666; font-size:1.4em; } p.author { font-style:italic; text-shadow: hsl(280,100%,50%) 2px 2px 4px, orange 10px 6px 12px, hsla(140,100%,50%,0.6) -5px -3px 12px; }
  105. 105. CSS3 Web Fonts @font-face { font-family: "BiauKai"; src: url("http://www.example.com/assets/fonts/BiauKai.tt f") } html:lang(zh-tw) div.post { font-family: BiauKai, serif }
  106. 106. CSS3 Web Font Services • Font Squirrel http://www.fontsquirrel.com/ • TypeKit http://typekit.com/ • FontDeck http://fontdeck.com/ • Fonts.com Web Fonts http://webfonts.fonts.com • Google Font API http://code.google.com/webfonts
  107. 107. Rounded Corners div { width:50%; background-color: #FFFEEA; -moz-border-radius:20px; -webkit-border-radius:20px; border-radius:20px; border:1px solid red; padding:1em; margin-bottom:1em; }
  108. 108. CSS3 Columns -moz-column-count: 4; -moz-column-gap: 10px; -webkit-column-count: 4; -webkit-column-gap: 10px; column-count: 4; column-gap: 10px;
  109. 109. Box Shadow -moz-box-shadow: 6px 6px 14px #999; -webkit-box-shadow: 6px 6px 14px #999; box-shadow: 6px 6px 14px #999;
  110. 110. Multiple Backgrounds background: url(openquote.png) 1% 5% no-repeat, url(closequote.png) 99% 96% no-repeat;
  111. 111. Transitions opacity: 1; -webkit-transition-property: opacity; -webkit-transition-duration: 2s; -webkit-timing-function: linear; } div:hover { opacity: 0; }
  112. 112. Transforms img { -webkit-transform: translate(20px, 80px) scale(2.5, 2.5) rotate(20deg); }
  113. 113. Exercise №10: CSS3 Boxes & Text • Create a page that uses CSS3 box and text features that you’ve just learned. Quotations are fun, or try something unique! • Try the transform technique and view it in a WebKit browser
  114. 114. Strategies for implementing HTML5 today • Progressive enhancement • Accessibility > validation • Remy Sharp’s HTML5 Enabling Script: • http://remysharp.com/2009/01/07/html5-enabling- script/ • Detect support for HTML5 • Mark Pilgrim’s chapter: http://diveintohtml5.org/detect.html • HTML5 Boilerplate: http://html5boilerplate.com/ • When can I use… http://caniuse.com/
  115. 115. Strategies for implementing CSS3 today • Detect support for CSS3 using Modernizr: http://www.modernizr.com/ • Wide capability on mobile devices – iOS, Android, Pre, new BlackBerry, etc. • Design using principles of progressive enhancement. • Reject the notion that you need pixel perfect rendering across all browsers. • IE6 visitors do not need rounded corners. They have other issues.
  116. 116. Force IE standards mode+Chrome Frame • <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1">
  117. 117. When can I use... • http://caniuse.com/
  118. 118. HTML5 Boilerplate • http://html5boilerplate.com/ • Cross-browser compatible, including IE6 • HTML5 ready. Use the new tags with certainty. • Caching and compression rules for performance • Drop in site configuration defaults. • Mobile browser optimizations. • Unit test framework built in.
  119. 119. Exercise №XX: Use it now! • Pick a solution such as Modernizr, HTML5 Boilerplate, the caniuse.com site, or the detection scripts from Mark Pilgrim’s book and create a web page or two that leverage implementable HTML5 and/or CSS3 today! • What would you do to make your site friendly to mobile devices?
  120. 120. HTML5 and CSS3 for Mobile Apps
  121. 121. Where the money is at • “The center of financial gravity in the computing world—the Center of Money—has shifted. No longer directed at the PC, the money pump now gushes full blast at the smartphones market.” —Jean-Louis Gasse, May 2, 2010, commenting on HP’s estimated operating profit from PCs at ~5% ($500M) vs. Apple’s estimated operating profit of 58% ($3B) from iPhones.
  122. 122. Questions to consider • What is the mobile web? • Why is this important now? • What trends are driving this importance? • What opportunities do mobile devices present to use in science and information technology?
  123. 123. What is the mobile web • Web access via mobile wireless devices: • Smartphones • iPhone • Palm Prē • Android • Modern BlackBerry devices • PDAs & Other gadgetry (Kindle, iPod Touch, iPad, future tablets) • Forget about low-end phones with claimed web access.
  124. 124. Mobile Web Use Trends • Explosive growth: • Bango: Mobile web use in the US experienced three fold increase in 2007 • Juniper: Mobile web users will grow from 577 million in 2008 to more than 1.7 billion in 2013 • iPhone leading the way since launch of June 2007: • AdMob: iPhone in 11/2008 became single most-used web device over any other handset • Google 2/2008: Apple iPhone generates 50 times more searches than any other device • Opera is most widely deployed mobile browser: ~54% market share
  125. 125. Expect increased mobile web use • March 2010: 71% of American smartphone users use their devices for web access. • Some major sites reporting over 13% of their traffic coming from mobile devices • Weather & Entertainment: often over 20% • Web-enabled client apps are critical to the market. > 185,000 apps for iPhone App Store > 53,000 for Android Market > 5,000 for Nokia Ovi Store > 2,000 for BlackBerry App World > 1,500 for Palm webOS App Catalog • Social networking dominates web+app use • Global use > 40% for social networking • USA, South Africa, and Indonesia register > 60% use (Opera, 5/2008)
  126. 126. Advantages for mobile apps • Convenience & Proximity: Always on, always near the owner. • 60% of mobile users keep their phones bedside at night. • Ubiquitous, omnipresent information streams: Don’t need to return to a desk to input data. • Location aware: GPS, accelerometers widely available. • Media input: Most smartphones have built-in camera, microphone, speaker, keyboard. • "An App for That": There are currently over 100K approved apps for the iPhone, and the rate of growth is phenomenal, more than the rate of growth for desktop software • Cost: The cost of apps has been decreasing significantly and most of the most popular apps cost $1 • On the Go Messaging: Ability for users to send and receive messages from any location • Data storage: Users are able to have a significant amount of personal and professional data at their fingertips. • Airlines are allowing users to have e-tickets on their smartphones, these devices are replacing paper and credit cards to store information.
  127. 127. Mobile Application Challenges • Small screen size • Navigation differences & usability • Reduced functionality • No Flash • Slow Networks • City congestion/canyons • Major events (i.e. Superbowl) • No 3G • Lower processing capability • Less CPU power • Less RAM
  128. 128. Use cases for mobile refactoring • Public web presence • Mobile users on your intranet (travel, time, information) • Scientific applications • Lab notes • Notification & access to experiment data • Collaboration • Status & project management • Mobile data distribution to field users, first responders • Research using mobile data gathering,
  129. 129. Web apps vs. thick clients? • Most applications do not need native device features. • There are some very good reasons for native clients. • Let’s weigh the pros and cons for each...
  130. 130. Pros of thick clients • Access to native hardware features not supported by web frameworks. • Native performance benefits. • Access to app stores for commercial/public distribution and one-click payment systems. • Security can be scrutinized across entire data lifecycle. • In the case of iPhone, Xcode + Cocoa Touch framework is an elegant and powerful programming environment.
  131. 131. Cons of thick clients • Have to develop proprietary, device-specific code. • Have to work in proprietary SDKs. • Have to work with languages such as Java or Objective-C. • For iPhone development, have to use a Mac. • For Blackberry development, have to use Windows. • Slow development cycle. • Difficult to deploy. • Difficult to maintain - bug fixes are slow to propagate. • Vendor lock. • May not work on earlier or later OS versions or devices. • Subject to SDK license agreements that can be restrictive.
  132. 132. Pros of web apps • Build applications using any text editor. • Develop for any platform. No vendor lock. • Use skills developers already know: HTML, CSS, JavaScript. • Do not have to learn new proprietary languages or frameworks. • Refactor existing web applications with minimal, inexpensive changes. • Will work on earlier/later OS & devices • Fix bugs and deploy in real time. • Faster development cycle. • For most apps, web functionality is plenty. • Hardware-accelerated JavaScript and CSS3 animation and transition effects. • Can avoid client-side storage and so local data won’t be compromised in case of device loss. • Mobile web browsers are becoming more powerful and innovative, allowing for delivery of complex applications, tapping into features of mobile devices, and simplifying code development. • Can leverage advances in W3C's Mobile Web Initiative • Reduced software development costs. • Free from proprietary SDK license agreement restrictions. • Deploy any web app to a native client app platform using a simple wrapper (i.e. UIWebView in Cocoa Touch) • Option to use PhoneGap to compile web apps as thick clients.
  133. 133. Cons of web apps • Can't access all hardware features of a mobile device such as the camera, microphone, accelerometer (But GPS can be accessed through JavaScript.) • Must create your own payment system for commercial applications. • Can be slow if there is extensive use of high- resolution images, HTML tables, or JavaScript. • Beginning to see hardware JS & CSS3 acceleration. • Subject to usual web-based security exploits.
  134. 134. Recommendations on web apps vs thick clients • Consider web apps first. Build web apps whenever possible. • Begin with a web app, even if it is only basic functionality, and move to thick clients when necessary. • Use PhoneGap to build web apps in HTML+JS and still take advantage of native core SDK features of iPhone OS, Android, webOS, Symbian, and BlackBerry: http://www.phonegap.com/ • Build dedicated thick clients only when you’ve exhausted all other alternatives.
  135. 135. WebKit is the most used mobile platform • Safari mobile = WebKit • iPhone OS, Symbian, webOS, Android, and others. • BlackBerry moving to WebKit now. Stats from Clicky® Web Analytics, May 2010
  136. 136. Mobile web moving to WebKit & HTML5 Browser Engine HTML5? Mobile Safari WebKit Yes Android browser WebKit Yes Blackberry 6 browser WebKit Yes Symbian^3 WebKit Yes MeeGo WebKit Yes Internet Explorer Mobile Proprietary No webOS browser WebKit Yes Bada OS browser WebKit Yes Opera Mobile Presto Yes Opera Mini Presto Yes Fennec Firefox Yes Myriad (Openwave) WebKit No BOLT browser WebKit ?
  137. 137. Opera • Two flavors: • Opera Mini – works on just about any phone, most common version • Opera Mobile – more full-featured, works w/ PDAs running Windows Mobile and Symbian UIQ Touch • Now defaults to ‘screen’ media instead of ‘handheld’ media type rendering, following WebKit • Supports CSS3 media queries: http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-mediaqueries/
  138. 138. WebKit • Open source, lightweight codebase • Dominant rendering platform across smartphone browser market. • No support for CSS media type = ‘handheld’ – Instead uses media queries
  139. 139. Browsers vs. Screen Sizes
  140. 140. Developing on the desktop for mobile • Use Opera in Small Screen mode for developing for handheld media • Use iPhone SDK & Android SDK emulators for developing for WebKit • Opera has a menu item to switch to handheld media. • Firefox users can install the Web Developer Toolbar to switch to handheld media easily.
  141. 141. Strategies for mobile web delivery 1. User-agent sniffing 2. CSS media types 3. Separate site (m.yoursite.gov or yoursite.gov/m) 4. Combinations of the above usually are most effective
  142. 142. User-agent detection <?php function detectWebkit($query){ $container = $_SERVER[’HTTP_USER_AGENT’]; $useragents = array ( 'iPhone','iPod','Android','S60'); $this->webkit = false; foreach ( $useragents as $useragent ) { if (eregi($useragent,$container)){ $this->webkit = true; } } if($this->webkit) { // do something for the webkits } else { // do something for non-webkits } } ?> • Variation and lack of standards mean constant chase as UA strings change • PPK is gathering data http://twitter.com/ppk/status/ 56782351 & http://quirksmode.org/m/d/ to build stronger example.
  143. 143. Separate sites or codebases • Might mean a lot more code to maintain • Improve situation in MVC using modified routes, controllers & views • Can more effectively address constrained bandwidth through ruthless optimization
  144. 144. Delivering mobile style The link method: <link rel="stylesheet" href="mobile.css" type="text/css" media="handheld"> Applying handheld to an embedded stylesheet: <style type="text/css" media="handheld"> div.foo { color: red; } </style> Using @media handheld to target handheld styles in embedded or external CSS: @media handheld { div.foo { color: red; } } Using @media handheld to import a mobile stylesheet: <style type="text/css"> @import url(mobile.css) handheld; </style>
  145. 145. Viewport and media queries • WebKit assumes 960 pixels • Reset that assumption: • <meta name="viewport” content="width=640" /> • <meta name = "viewport" content="width = device- width"> • As mentioned, Opera and WebKit default to screen media but support media queries • Use media query to reset width: <style type="text/css" media="only screen and (max- device-width: 480px)"> div.layout { width:100%; } </style>
  146. 146. Combine handheld and media query targets • Add the handheld value to your media string: <style type="text/css" media="handheld, only screen and (max-device-width: 480px)">
  147. 147. Mobile Refactoring Rule No.1 • Hide unneeded sections div#sidebar { display:none; } • Or move them div#sidebar { float:none; }
  148. 148. Mobile Refactoring Rule No.2 • Reset the content width div#layout { width:100%; }
  149. 149. Abbreviate • Reset wide text using the content property: img#masthead { content: attr(alt); font-family: cursive; } #sitenav a[href="http://natasha.example.com/cv/"] { content: "CV"; } #sitenav a[href="http://natasha.example.com/cal/"] { content: "Events"; } #sitenav a[href="http://natasha.example.com/av/"] { content: "A/V"; }
  150. 150. Design for a touch screen div#sitenav a { width:100%; font-size:2em; margin:0; border:1px solid #333; text-align:center; } Best touch screen height = 44px
  151. 151. Nifty WebKit Tricks: Transforms & CSS3 dl { opacity:0.25; -webkit-transform: skew(-30deg) rotate(-8deg) translate(-5em,-10em) scale(1.5); -webkit-box-shadow: 2px 10px 13px rgba(0,0,0,0.5); -webkit-transition-duration: 2s; -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease-in; } dl:hover { -webkit-transform: skew(0deg) rotate(0deg) translate(0,0) scale(1); opacity: 1; -webkit-border-radius: 20px; }
  152. 152. Questions?
  153. 153. Resources • A List Apart – Return of the Mobile Style Sheet: http://www.alistapart.com/articles/returnofthemobilestyleshe et • Mobile Web Best Practices: http://www.w3.org/TR/mobile- bp/ • Google Android: http://code.google.com/android/ • Apple iPhone Developer: http://developer.apple.com/iphone/ • Designing with Opera Mini in mind: http://dev.opera.com/articles/view/designing-with-opera- mini-in-mind/ • Opera Mini emulator: http://www.opera.com/mini/demo/
  154. 154. What you have learned • Semantics and structure of HTML5 • How to insert SVG, MathML, <video>, <audio>, and <canvas> • How to implement CSS3 • How to use HTML5 and CSS3 today! • How to leverage HTML5 and CSS3 for mobile devices.
  155. 155. HTML5/CSS3 Developer License • You now have license to implement HTML5 and CSS3 today in your web work. • You now have license to design using progressive enhancement, providing essential services for legacy users while delivering cutting-edge functionality for modern browsers. • You now have license to not restrict yourelf to the chains of legacy browsers. • You now have license to think ahead progressively for the future of your work. Congratulations!
  156. 156. Thanks!!! • Joe Lewis • http://www.sanbeiji.com • http://twitter.com/sanbeiji/

Notas do Editor

  • Debate is now about “how well x browser vendor supports HTML5”
  • “We&apos;re betting big on HTML 5.”— Vic Gundotra, Google“The world is moving to HTML5.”— Steve Jobs, Apple“The future of the web is HTML5.”— Dean Hachamovitch, Microsoft
  • Always have a character set, please. And, always indicate utf-8 as said character set, unless you have a very good reason to do otherwise.
  • Simple, easy, memorable.
  • Quoting attribute values is not necessary unless you have multiple values separated by spaces, such as in title, alt, or class.XML-style self closing tags are not needed for validation or browser functionality.Not necessary if already specified in HTTP headers.
  • You might just be using &lt;html&gt;, and that’s OK too. But the lang attribute is useful, so do keep it in there. At the national lab level and other .gov web properties, this would best be represented as en-us, but there’s of course plenty of reasons why you’d want to use another language specification i.e. in the case of translated content.
  • Simplest, most structurally sound example of an HTML5 web page. Bruce Lawson has a great teardown of this reasoning on his website.
  • &lt;b&gt; is for “a span of text to be stylistically offset from the normal prose without conveying any extra importance,” while &lt;i&gt; is now “a span of text in an alternate voice or mood, or otherwise offset from the normal prose, such as a taxonomic designation”Many disagree with the &lt;cite&gt; restriction and want to use it for an author as well. I agree.
  • Iframe is perfectly fine.
  • To discuss semantic elements in HTML5, consider this markup in detail. We have header, tagline, nav, article, and footer represented as classes or IDs. Very common, and there’s nothing wrong with this markup.
  • Accessibility caveat: Screen readers may have issues.
  • Doesn’t have to be img, can be video, svg, etc.
  • Works in WebKit
  • Doesn’t seem to work in webkit yet.
  • Who knows what types of CSS selectors these are? Show live example here.
  • Hat tip to regular-expressions.info
  • MP4 must come first to handle an iPad bug.
  • MP4 must come first to handle an iPad bug.
  • IE6 doesn’t need box shadows or rounded corners….
  • E[instrument^=&quot;bass&quot;] – selects any attribute beginning with the string “bass”. Given a list of standard orchestral instruments, “bassoon”, “bass clarinet”, “basset_clarinet”, “basset_horn”, and “bass_drum” would be matches. Other instruments containing the string “bass” such as “contrabassoon” and “double_bass” would be omitted.E[instrument$=&quot;bass&quot;] – selects any attribute ending with the string “bass”. Going back to our list of orchestral instruments, “double_bass” would be a match and the rest would be skipped.E[instrument*=&quot;bass&quot;] – selects any attribute beginning with the string “bass”. This time the entire list of instruments from the first example containing the string “bass” would be matches.
  • &lt;!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN&quot; &quot;http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd&quot;&gt;&lt;html&gt; &lt;head&gt; &lt;title&gt;nth child&lt;/title&gt; &lt;/head&gt; &lt;style type=&quot;text/css&quot;&gt;p { height:30px; width:110px; margin:0; padding:2px;float:left; } p:nth-child(3n+1) { background-color: #6CF; } p:nth-child(3n+2) { background-color: #6FC; } p:nth-child(3n+3) { background-color: #FC6; } p:nth-child(7) { font-size:1.8em; font-weight:bold; text-align:center; color:#e00000; }p:nth-child(even) { color:#fff; } p:nth-child(5n) { font-style:italic; } &lt;/style&gt; &lt;body&gt; &lt;div id=&quot;string_instruments&quot;&gt; &lt;p&gt;Violin&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Viola&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Cello&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Double Bass&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Viola daGamba&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Guitar&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Banjo&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Mandolin&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Mandola&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Mandolincello&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Lute&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Theorbo&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Erhu&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Pipa&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Guzheng&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Sitar&lt;/p&gt; &lt;/div&gt; &lt;/body&gt;&lt;/html&gt;
  • Apple makes six times the profit from iPhone OS device sales than HP makes from PC sales — despite the fact that by unit sales, HP is the world’s leading PC maker, and Apple is not the leading smartphone maker.The point here is that the age of the PC is waning. The future of innovation is in mobile devices and beyond.
  • Before June 2007, web use from mobile was nominal. What changed? iPhone.iPhone legitimized the idea of surfing the web from a mobile device.Apple prevented client app development for a year before allowing developers to build non-web applications. This fueled massive growth of mobile web development and forced developers to stretch the capabilities of what was possible with mere client-side technologies such as XHTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Check out the original web version of Bejeweled.In his book, “Mobile as the 7th of the Mass Media” (2008, futuretext Ltd.), Tomi T. Ahonen makes the case that mobile media is nothing to be ignored: 31% of consumer spending in the music industry is spent on mobile purchases, while in the gaming industry the number is 20%. It has been deduced that—as of today—approximately one and a half billion Internet connections being generated from mobile phones, and 63% of the global population has a potentially Internet-capable mobile phone. Over 60 countries around the world have mobile phone penetration exceeding 100% of the population—which means many people own not one but two mobile devices—And finally, Nielsen in May of 2008 reported that leading Internet sites increased their usage by 13% over desktop-based traffic alone, and in certain cases such as for weather and entertainment up to 20%. These are significant trend indicators for mobile web growth, which will undoubtedly continue to increase in the coming years.In February of 2008 Google reported that they were seeing 50 times more search queries coming from iPhone than from any other mobile handset at that time. While this snapshot statistic is not necessarily representative of the entire mobile Web, it is an auspicious metric considering the iPhone had been out for only seven or eight months and constituted a tiny fraction of the mobile handset hardware market at the time. Nevertheless, despite its limited market share, the iPhone’s Mobile Safari browser was clearly already on its way to becoming the dominant player in the mobile web market space.What was the key to the mobile Web’s adoption on the iPhone? The answer is usability. So much attention to detail was placed on the iPhone and its Mobile Safari web browser that users and developers alike were suddenly able to create and consume traditional Web content with very little additional effort.
  • Instant broadcasting/publishing or data collection platform for the fieldConvenience &amp; Proximity: Always on, always near the owner.60% of mobile users keep their phones bedside at night.Ubiquitous, omnipresent information streams: Don’t need to return to a desk to input data.Location aware: GPS, accelerometers widely available.Media input: Most smartphones have built-in camera, microphone, and speaker in addition to keyboard input.&quot;An App for That&quot;: There are currently over 100K approved apps for the iPhone, and the rate of growth is phenomenal, more than the rate of growth for desktop softwareCost: The cost of apps has been decreasing significantly and most of the most popular apps cost $1On the Go Messaging: Ability for users to send and receive messages from any locationData storage: Users are able to have a significant amount of personal and professional data at their fingertips.Airlines are allowing users to have e-tickets on their smartphones, these devices are replacing paper and credit cards to store information. 
  • Small screen size - This makes it difficult or impossible to see text and graphics dependent on the standard size of a desktop computer screen.Lack of windows - On a desktop computer, the ability to open more than one window at a time allows for multi-tasking and for easy revert to a previous page. On mobile web, only one page can be displayed at a time, and pages can only be viewed in the sequence they were originally accessed.Navigation - Mobile devices do not use a mouselike pointer, but rather simply an up and down function for scrolling, thereby limiting the flexibility in navigation.Lack of Javascript and cookies - Most devices do not support client-side scripting and storage of cookies (smartphones and iPhone excluded), which are now widely used in most Web sites for enhancing user experience, facilitating the validation of data entered by the page visitor, etc. This also results in web analytics tools (like Google Analytics) not being suitable for uniquely identifying visitors using mobile devices.Types of pages accessible - Many sites that can be accessed on a desktop cannot on a mobile device. Many devices cannot access pages with a secured connection, Flash or other similar software, PDFs, or video sites, although recently this has been changing.Speed - On most mobile devices, the speed of service is very slow, often slower than dial-up Internet access.Broken pages - On many devices, a single page as viewed on a desktop is broken into segments, which are each treated as a separate page. Paired with the slow speed, navigation between these pages is slow.Compressed pages - Many pages, in their conversion to mobile format, are squeezed into an order different from how they would customarily be viewed on a desktop computer.Size of messages - Many devices have limits on the number of characters that can be sent in an email message.
  • This small sampling demonstrates the wide range of default browser rendering engines and screen capabilities between the various models and vendors. Even among the same vendor there is wide variance in browser support. Opera has the largest numbers for support, WebKit has the highest momentum for adoption.Chart is old data but pay attention to the resolution column.
  • Use desktop emulators for previewing content.
  • We will quickly look at the UA sniffing and separate site approaches, and then focus on media targets as a quick enhancement you can implement today for existing sites.
  • Maintenance can be a chore with UA detection. However, it does allow you to deliver trimmed content and save bandwidth. . UAs change all the time and there’s little standard. Plan on maintenance.
  • Screenshot showing mapped routes for the mobile version of an application in Ruby on Rails, invoking special controllers and actions for specific URLs in the mobile format.
  • Of these, the link method has the widest support. Things start to fail in older browsers and you go down the list. We will focus on this method as a quick and easy add-on to many existing sites. No reason not to.
  • The sidebar information may be getting in the way of the mobile user experience. Simple CSS rules can be used to hide or move the content.Given a sidebar has been floated to create a two column layout, simply kill the float.
  • Say an image is too wide for most mobile screens and is causing layout problems. Reset it to the alt attribute and give the heading some typography!Reset long text buttons with content property. Résumé becomes CV, Upcoming Events becomes Events, and Multimedia becomes A/V
  • More examples in source code examples
  • CSS3 works great on iPhone!