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Introduction Psychopathology

  1. Introduction Psychopathology M.D Sara Dawod
  2. Definitions • Abnormal behavior: deviation from what is considered normal. • Abnormal psychology: scientific study whose objectives are to describe, explain, predict, and control behaviors that are considered unusual or strange.
  3. Mental Disorders • It is any organic, mental, or emotional impairment, including those induced by alcoholism or drug abuse. It has substantial adverse effects on cognitive, behavior, or emotional functioning (Murray, 1987 P:632). • The diagnosis of mental illness should help the mental health professionals in understanding the illness and symptoms and in planning care for individual clients. The problem of defining a person as mentally ill lies in the issue of labeling. Labeling stigmatizes the person in the society, which has negative implication.
  4. Meaning of mental health and illness • Although the term “mental health” and “mental illness” are widely used in literature, they have not been clearly defined. • In general, mental health is used to mean an optimum level of psychosocial functioning; “mental illness” refers to some level of deviation from such state.
  5. Mental Health • Peplau (1952) has defined mental health as: A term which implies forward movement personality and other ongoing processes in the direction of creative, constructive, productive personal and community living. • Murray (1987) defines mental health as, “ a growth toward maturity in which the individual is able to achieve the capacity to love rather than remains in a state of helplessness with the need for love” (P:240). • WHO definition of Mental Health: it is the full and harmonious functioning of the whole personality.
  6. Mental Health • American psychiatric association defines mental health as: • Simultaneous success at working, loving and creating with the capacity for mature and flexible resolution of conflicts between instincts, conscience, other people& reality. • Comprehensive definition: • Mental health is defined as “A state of psychological well-being and satisfactory adjustment to society and daily life demands”. This doesn't mean a complete freedom from stress, frustration, and conflicts.
  7. Mental Illness • American psychiatric association define mental illness as: • An illness with psychological, behavioral manifestation and impairment in functioning. It is due to a social, psychological, genetic, physical, chemical or biological disturbances.
  8. Mental Illness • Mental illness may be defined as: • Psychosocial response to stress that interfere with or inhibit a persons ability to comfortably or affectively meet human needs and function within a culture according to Kolb (1974).
  9. The problem of defining mental health and mental illness • There is variety of disordered areas in the patient. The disorder may be present in the behavior, affect, thinking or all of these. • Health is not a scientific term and it is difficult to measure it “Health” an “Illness” relate to very general, nonspecific characteristics of an individual or a group or class of a population.
  10. The problem of defining mental health and mental illness • It is difficult to apply concepts of health and illness to human behavior and to the complex way of human feeling and thinking. • There are cultural differences between people which makes it very complicated to judge others mental state, by using our values or standards.
  11. Psychopathology • As a term, it is a word which denotes behaviors or experiences that indicate the presence of mental illness, even if it doesn’t constitute a formal diagnosis. • For instant, if a person has depressed mood or hallucination, it is considered as a psychopathological sign even if other symptoms are weak or not present to fulfill the criteria for one of he disorders in the DSM. The boundaries between mental and physical disorders are equally problematic.
  12. History of psychopathology • Prehistoric and ancient beliefs: early demonology: evil or spirit dwell within persons and control their body and mind (demonology) behaviors outside individual control, supernatural causes. • Treatment: exorcism: elaborate prayers, noisemaking, starvation to cast the evil spirit out.
  13. Early biological explanation • Naturalistic explanation: in 5th century, Hippocrates (father of modern medicine) separated medicine from religion, magic and superstition. • Abnormal thinking or behaviors are indication of brain pathology and physical problems disturbs thought and actions. • Heredity and environment play important role.
  14. Early biological explanation • Physician is the healer of mental illnesses. • Classified mental illnesses: mania, melancholia, and phrenitis (brain fever). • Treatment: melancholia: care in choosing diet, exercise, abstinence from sex.
  15. Dark ages and demonology • Churches gained in influences and Christian monasteries replaced physician as healer of mental illnesses. • Illness is perceived as punishment for sin. • Monks cared for sick by praying over them or touching them with relics (things from past). • Patients were roamed the countryside and return to belief in supernatural causes.
  16. • Witchcraft (15-17th centuries): the church was challenged by the social and religious reforms so it claimed that Satan fostered these attack and should killed each person has red spot, club foot, cleft palate. Mentally ill patients were seen as witches. • The rise of humanism (renaissance): which emphasizes human welfare, worth and uniqueness of the person. Few mental hospital were established. • Medical treatment (18-19th century) Pinels reform: French physician, primary of humanitarian treatment of mentally ill, light and airy rooms, discharge pt from hospital, but humanitarian treatment was offered for upper class.
  17. • Hospitals established in Europe and Britain small, private: • York Retreat (1796, UK): provide pts with religious and quiet atmosphere to live and work. • Moral treatment is provided: pt engaged in purposeful activity, live close to normal, took responsibilities for themselves. • Drugs were the most common and the outcomes were not favorable (less than 1/3 discharged).
  18. Who needs to study psychopathology? • Psychiatrists who are particularly interested in descriptive psychopathology, which aims at describing the symptoms of mental disorder. This is done either for diagnosis or treatment purposes. • Psychologists. • Psychiatric nurses. • Psychiatric social worker. • Mental health practitioner and experts. • Counselors and therapists. • Neurologists. • Occupational therapists. • Neurologists. • Researchers who might conduct research to determine epidemiology, prevalence, and evaluate treatment protocols.