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Personal financial planning

  1. Sagayaraj Personal Financial Planning
  2. Why invest?  Most of us in private job with no job security  Inflation rate doesn’t match the increment rate  To have regular income after retirement  Taking care of children’s needs  Investments must, hence, be foremost in the order of priority barring any financial emergency
  3. Understanding cash flow  Preparing a Cash Flow statement of income and expenses  Helps to focus or curtail unwanted expenses  “The secret to getting rich is to pay yourself first (i.e., invest for your future), before you pay others (utilities, shops, etc)” – Kiyosaki (author of Rich Dad Poor Dad)
  4. Example of a cash flow statement Total (savings) +Rs 10,000.00
  5. Where to Invest?  Different avenues of investment  Stocks, mutual funds, government bonds, post office schemes, bank fixed deposits, commodities, gold, real estate, art, etc.
  6. Inflation  Inflation is the rate at which the cost of goods and services rises  As inflation goes up, purchasing power decreases  Three years ago, you could have bought a three bedroom apartment in a premium suburb of Mumbai for Rs 75 lakh; today, the same amount will probably get you a one bedroom apartment in the same locality  Inflation reduces the value of money
  7. Impact of Inflation on financial goals  Over the years, you have to spend more in order to maintain your standard of living  A management course that costs Rs 15 lakh today will cost around Rs 41 lakh (at 7 per cent inflation), 15 years hence when your child is ready for it!
  8. Real return  To fight inflation, invest in a product which gives not just a higher rate of interest than inflation, but also leaves with a substantial amount that enables to meet the goals  Real return = stated return – Inflation  Investing in an investment product provides 10% return then actual return is 3% (10 – 7)  If we consider 30% tax on return then the return is almost nil  Consider investing in equities, real estate and commodities which are insulated from inflation
  9. Accelerate earnings: The concept of reinvestment  Are you investing the interest earned?  The simple act of reinvesting the interest earned means you earn interest on the interest and make more money  Suppose you invested a sum of Rs 2 lakh in the Post Office Monthly Income Scheme (MIS) @ 8 per cent per annum. Every month, a sum of Rs 1,333 will be deposited into your savings account, for a period of 6 years. “Where should i invest such a small amount?”, you may ask. Well, the Department of Posts has a Recurring Deposit (RD) scheme, where you can invest as little as Rs 10 each month @ 8 per cent per annum. Your MIS interest over 5 years would be Rs 80,000. Reinvesting would, hence, earn you an additional interest of 8 per cent on the Rs 80,000, without much effort.
  10. Accelerate earnings: The concept of reinvestment  The following table demonstrates the value of Rs 10,000 invested at 7 per cent over a period of 35 years, assuming that the interest is reinvested.
  11. Compounding  “Compounding the greatest mathematical discovery ever” – Albert Einstein  Reinvest your income from interest on investments, your capital or principal that is invested goes up  Another factor that influences compounding is the frequency of compounding  Compounding is such a powerful financial tool that if you invest and reinvest your savings and profits regularly, your investment portfolio will steadily outgrow your salary!
  12. Financial Planning  Financial planning is the process of developing a personal roadmap for your financial well being  The output of the financial planning process is a personal financial plan that tells you how to use your money to achieve your goals, keeping in mind inflation, real returns, and taxes  Process of systematically planning your finances towards achieving your short-term and long-term life goals
  13. Benefits  Helps monitor cash flows and reduces unnecessary expenditure  Enables maintenance of an optimum balance between income and expenses  Helps boost savings and create wealth  Helps reduce tax liability  Maximizes returns from investments  Creates wealth and ensures better wealth management to achieve life goals  Financially secures retirement life  Reviews insurance needs and therefore also ensures that dependents are financially secure in the unfortunate event of death or disability  Lastly, it also ensures that a will is made
  14. Financial Planning Process  Identify your current financial situation  Identify your goals  Identify financial gaps  Prepare your personal financial plan  Implement your financial plan  Periodically review your plan
  15. Tips for Financial Planning  Start now. Even if you are in your mid thirties or forties, it’s better to start now than dawdle for another five years. Every day counts  Be honest with yourself. Seek help when needed.  Set sensible, measurable goals for yourself. Be realistic in your expectations of the results of financial planning  Review your plan and financial situation periodically and adjust as needed  Always review the performance of your investments; pull out if needed and reinvest the money elsewhere.  Be hands-on. It’s your money and no one else will do your work for you
  16. Types of Investment  Stocks  Mutual funds  Government bonds  Post office schemes  Public Provident Fund  Bank fixed deposits  Company fixed deposits  Commodities  Gold  Real estate  Art Why Insurance is not categorized as Investment?
  17. Stocks  Risk  High  Returns  High  Tax impact  Capital gains tax will be calculated based on your gain  Requirements  Demat account to be opened
  18. Mutual Funds  Risk  High to Low based on the type of funds chosen  Returns  Medium  Tax impact  Requirements  KYC process to be followed  Investment type  Fixed amount more than Rs. 1000 or SIP
  19. Tax Impact on Mutual Funds Capital Gains Dividend Income In the hands of Tax on distributed income Paid by Fund House Equity Schemes*^ Other than Equity Schemes Short Term (units held for 12 months or less) Long Term (units held for more than 12 months) TDS Short Term Long Term TDS Equity Scheme Other Schemes Equity Scheme Debt schemes Money market and Liquid schemes 15.45% (15% + 3% education cess) NIL STCG - 15.45% (15% +3% education cess) LTCG -NIL Applicable income tax as per slab + 3% education cess 10.30% without indexation or 20.60% with indexation (10%/20%+ 3% education cess) STCG - 30.90% (30% + 3% education cess) LTCG - 20.60% (20% +3% education cess) (after providing for indexation) NIL NIL NIL 13.519% (12.5% + 5% surcharge + 3% education Cess) 27.038% (25% + 5% surcharge + 3% education Cess)
  20. Government Bonds  Risk  Low  Returns  Low  Tax impact  Tax free based on type of bonds  Requirements  Demat account or buy in paper form  Investment type  Fixed amount more than Rs. 5000 as one time investment with specific period
  21. Post Office Savings Scheme (POSS)  Risk  Nil  Returns  Low  Tax impact  Interest is taxable  Requirements  None  Investment type  National Savings Certificates (NSC), National Savings Scheme (NSS), Kisan Vikas Patra, Monthly Income Scheme and Recurring Deposit Scheme
  22. Public Provident Fund (PPF)  Risk  Nil but poor liquidity  Returns  Medium  Tax impact  Tax free  Requirements  Should be opened on individual’s name  Maximum savings can’t exceed 70000 per year  Can remit in a single installment or in max of 12 installments  Can avail loan  Can liquidate only after 15 years
  23. Bank FDs  Risk  Low  Returns  Medium  Tax impact  Interest is taxable  Interest rate will vary based on RBI’s monetary policy
  24. Company FDs  Risk  Medium  Returns  Medium  Tax impact  Interest is taxable  Interest rate is high when compared with Banks but risk is high  Fixed term
  25. Insurance  Provides financial protection to dependants  Doesn’t make sense if there are no dependants  Finalizing Life Cover  Life cover should be 10 times your annual income  Consider other debts, pre-existing medical complication, etc.  Fund performance  In case of ULIP, evaluate the performance of the company in the past years  Types of Insurance Products  Term Insurance  Endowment Insurance Plans  ULIP  Pension Plans  Money-Back Plan
  26. Best Practices in investing  Diversify your portfolio  Constantly monitor your investment and try to correct bad performing assets  Use online portfolio tools to have consolidated view of your investments  Don’t save what is left after spending but spend what is left after saving  Add nominee in all your investments  Constantly review your financial goals with the investments you have made
  27. Thanks  Any Questions?