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Module question-chapter-transport

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Module question-chapter-transport

  1. 1. BIOLOGY MODULE 2012LEARNING AREA : TRANSPORTActivity 1 :The circulatory system in humans and animals The circulatory system is divided into a closed circulatory system and an open circulatory system. Humans, fish, amphibians and birds have a closed circulatory system, while insects have an open circulatory system. Unlike fish which have a single circulatory system, amphibians, birds and humans have a double circulatory system. The human circulatory system consists of blood, blood vessels and the heart. Blood is made up of blood cells and plasma. Blood cells consist of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Plasma consists of water, plasma proteins, nutrients, metabolic waste, hormones and antibodies. Blood vessels are divided into three types; arteries, veins and capillaries. The heart is the organ that pumps blood, which carries all the vital materials that help the body function and waste products that the body does not need. 1
  2. 2. Transfer the information from the text above into the graphic organizer below. Circulatory system consists of Open example Double circulatory system example Human Birds Fish consists of Heart Blood vessel made up of Plasma consists of Red blood cellActivity 2 : The cellular components of the blood and their functionsWrite the correct cell due to its function. Cellular component Function Contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide 2
  3. 3. Phagocytes which engulf and digest bacteria and dead cells Releases enzyme that combat inflammation in Granular allergic reactions.Leucocytes Kills parasitic worms.(white blood Combats inflammation in allergic reactions.cell) Produces the immune response against foreign substances. Agranular Phagocytes which engulf and digest bacteria and dead cells Involved in the process of blood clotting.Activity 3 : Blood vesselsComparison between arteries, capillaries and veins. Fill in the box with correct answer. Blood vessels Arteries Capillaries Veins Allow rapid gaseous Carry deoxygenated exchange, nutrients, waste blood (except for theFunction and hormones between the pulmonary vein) blood and cells towards the heartThe thickness of Thinnest (one-cell thick)the wall No valves, except semi-Valves lunar valves in the aorta and pulmonary arteryThe size of Small LargelumenActivity 4 : The Human Heart The heart consists of four chambers: left and right atria, and left and right ventricles. The tricuspid valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. The bicuspid valve separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. These valves prevent backflow of blood from the ventricles into the atria when the ventricles contract. Semi-lunar (mitral) valves are present at the base of the aorta and the pulmonary artery to prevent the backflow of blood into the ventricles.Complete the label of the structure of the human heart. 3
  4. 4. Pulmonary vein Superior vena cava Left atrium Right atrium Septum Chorda tendinae The wall of left ventricleActivity 5 : The flow of blood in the heartFill in the blanks.1. Vena cava carry d_________ __ blood  right a__________  through t______________ valve  right v_____________  through s ______________ valves  p_______________ arteries  lungs.2. Oxygenated blood from the lungs is carried by p_______________ veins  left a____________  through b_____________ valve  left v______________  through s________________ valves  aorta.Activity 6 : The pumping of the heartMatch the figure with the correct sequence of contraction of the heart muscles which results inthe pumping of the heart : 4
  5. 5. 1. The SA node as the pacemaker generates electrical impulses. 2. The electrical impulses spread rapidly over the walls of both atria, causing the atria to contract simultaneously. The contraction of the atria helps push blood into the ventricles. 3. The electrical impulses spread to the ventricles causing them to contact and push blood out to the lungs and body. 4. The electrical impulses reach the AV node. Bundle of His fibres, bundle branches and Purkinje fibres conduct the impulses to the apex of the heartActivity 7 : The circulatory systems in insects, fish, amphibians and humansComplete the table below to show the differences between the circulatory systems of insects,fish, amphibians and humans. Organisms Insects Fish Amphibians Humans Open ClosedType of circulatory system - Single Double 5
  6. 6. Separation of oxygenated - - Incompleteand deoxygenated blood (A singleNumber of chambers in blood vessel Fourthe heart forms the heart)Activity 8 : The Mechanism of Blood ClottingComplete the schematic diagram below. stimulates Damaged blood Agglutination of vessels platelets secretes Liver T___________ Vitamin K Ca+ Prothrombin T___________ Activity _9 : The Lymphatic SystemA Tick ( √ ) if the F________ F___________ (insoluble protein)statement is true, (soluble cross ( X ) if thestatement is wrong.1. Lymph flows into the lymph nodes to filter out bacteria, Blood clottingforeign particles and dead leucocytes. ( )2. Interstitial fluid is the fluid that fills up the space between cells. ( )3. Interstitial fluid and lymph are different because they arise from different source. ( )4. Lymph is in the blood vessels. ( )5. Lymph contains glucose, amino acids, fat droplets, dissolved gases, minerals and hormones but no lymphocytes. ( )6. Thoracic duct connects with the circulatory system at the left subclavian vein. ( )7. Exchange of materials occurs between the body cells and interstitial fluid. ( ) 6
  7. 7. 8. Interstitial fluid is formed due to high pressure in the body cells. ( )9. Fatty acids and glycerol are transported by lacteal into the right lymphatic duct to be returned to the circulatory system. ( )10. Interstitial fluid that fails to return to the circulatory system can cause oedema. ( )B Fill in the blanks the correct word to explain the concepts and facts regarding the lymphatic system.1. The flow of lymph in the lymphatic vessels is aided by the contraction of s___________ m_____________ around it.2. Interstitial fluid is returned to the circulatory system in two ways : (a) by diffusing back into the t d and the r ________ l d___________ (b) through the c_______________ into the circulatory system.Activity 10 : The Body’s Defence MechanismComplete the schematic diagram below. Lymphatic system is involved in Defence mechanism is divided into First S__________ T_________ line of defence _______________ _______________ consists of consists of consists of Phagocytic white Lymphocyte 7 M________ blood cell S_______ m__________
  8. 8. Activity 11 : The mechanisms used by antibodies to destroy thingsMatch each mechanism with the explanation on the right boxes. Antibodies can clamp pathogens together. The clumping makes the pathogens easy targets for phagocytes to capture and destroy. Opsonins are antibodies that bind with antigens to act as markers so that phagocytes can recognize the antigens and destroy them. Lysins are antibodies that bind to antigens and cause the antigens to rupture or disintegrate Activity 12 : Immunity An antibody can neutralize the toxins produced by bacteria by binding to the toxin. This prevents the toxin 8 from attaching to cells and causing damage.
  9. 9. The schematic diagram below shows the various types of immunity. Complete the diagram. Types of immunity Active immunity Passive immunity is divide into Naturally acquired Artificially acquired Naturally acquired Artificially acquired example C__________p___ H____________, Antibodies are T____________ d____ _, p______ required from the motherActivity 13 : The Transport ofOrganic Substances and Water in Plants characteristics - A_____________ - A v _________ - A foetus receives - A serum which are produced in stimulates the body maternal antibodies contains antibodies response to the to produce through p_______. or a____________ antigens. antibodies. can be injected - Babies acquire the from the donors. - The person is - The body has immunity through immune after he acquired immunity breastfeeding. - Temporary has been infected through vaccination. immunity by it. - Temporary immunity - Permanent immunity 9
  10. 10. A. Complete the schematic diagram below. PLANTS divided into types of transport Xylem P______ function in Transport of w_______ Transport of and m____________ o________ s________ from roots to leaves through translocation via three mechanisms Root pressure Transpiration pull C________ and a_________ in the xylem due to T____________Sample questions.1. Figure 1 shows the human circulatory system. Figure 1 10
  11. 11. (a) Name circulations P and Q. Describe each circulation. (i) P : ________________________________________________________________ Description : _________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ (i i) Q : ________________________________________________________________ Description : _________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ( 4 marks )(b) On Figure 1, mark the following flow of blood to illustrate the circulations P and Q. • Oxygenated blood with the arrow ( ) • Deoxygenated blood with the arrow ( ) ( 1 mark )(c) The pacemaker of a patient’s heart fails to function. An electronic pacemaker is used to replace the original pacemaker. Explain how the electronic pacemaker works. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ( 3 marks ) (d) Table 1 shows the volume of blood and the blood pressure in blood vessels X and Y. Blood vessel Volume / cm3 Pressure / kPa X 100 13.3 Y 300 0.3 Table 1 ( i) Based on Figure 1 and Table 1, what conclusion can you make about the rate of blood flow in the blood vessels X and Y? Explain your answer. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 11
  12. 12. ( 2 marks ) (ii) Explain how vigorous exercise increase the blood flow in the blood vessel X. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ( 2 marks )2. Figure 2 shows left half of the human heart. Figure 2(a) On Figure 2, ( i) complete the right half of the heart and label the drawn parts. (ii) draw an arrow to show the flow of blood. ( 3 marks ) 12
  13. 13. (b)( i) Which chamber is relax? ______________________________________________________________________ (ii) Based on Figure 2, give two reasons to support the answer of (b)(i). 1. ____________________________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________________________ ( 3 marks )(c)( i) State the difference between chambers labeled Y and Z. ______________________________________________________________________ (ii) Explain the importance of the difference in (c)(i). ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ( 2 marks )(d) )( i) Do the contractions of the cardiac muscle need to be stimulated by nerve impulses? ______________________________________________________________________ (ii) Explain your answer in (d)(i). ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ( 2 marks )3. Figure 3 shows the concentration of antibody in the blood of Individuals P and Q during the treatment to acquire immunity.(a) Identify the type of immunisation given to each of them. 13
  14. 14. Individual P : __________________________________________________________ Individual Q : ___________________________________________________________ ( 2 marks )(b) State the difference of the antibody concentration in the blood between Individual P and Q. Explain your answer. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ( 2 marks )(c) State the advantages of the type of immunisation given to both individuals. Individual P : __________________________________________________________ Individual Q : ___________________________________________________________ ( 2 marks )(d) Apart from the natural defences provided by the phagocytes and the lymphocytes, antibiotics and vaccination are used to combat infectious diseases. Explain what is meant by : ( i) antibiotic : _______________________________________________________ (ii) vaccines : ________________________________________________________ ( 2 marks )4. Table 2 shows the information of types of blood. Type of blood Cell P Cell Q Cell R Cell S Produces Carries oxygen Defense antibodies : Blood clotting Function and carbon mechanism - Lysine dioxide - Agglutinin - Antitoxin Table 2 14
  15. 15. (a)( i) Cell Q engulfs the pathogen entering the body by phagocytosis. Complete the diagram below to show the mechanism of phagocytosis occurred in cell Q. Pathogens (ii) Cell R destroys the pathogens entering the body by the action of antibodies. State one of the mechanisms used by antibodies to destroy pathogens. ______________________________________________________________________ ( 1 mark )(b)( i) Explain how cell P functioning in the transportation of respiration gases. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ( 3 marks) (ii) Based on Table 2, state two structural differences between Cell P and Cell Q. 1. ___________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ( 2 marks )(c)( i) Explain how Cell S functioning in the blood clotting. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ( 2 marks ) 15
  16. 16. (ii) Write down two enzymic reactions in the mechanism of blood clotting. 1. 2. ( 2 marks )Nama:…………………………………………………… Ole-ole BiologiTingkatan :……………………………………………… FORM 5 : CHAPTER 1Nama Guru:……………………………………………... 16 TRANSPORT