Purpose of Communication
Develop brand awareness
Increase category demand
Change customer belief or attitude
Enhance purchase actions
Encourage repeat purchases
Build customer traffic
Enhance firm image
Increase market share
Reinforce purchase decisions
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Marketing and IMC
Marketing, as we all know is creating and retaining
But marketing actions must take into consideration not only
customers and potential customers but also other stakeholders
(Stakeholders are individuals or groups who can affect or be
affected by, an organization) : employees, customers, investors,
suppliers, distribution channel members, the community, the
media, special interest and activist groups and government
In other words, a stake holder is anyone who has a stake in the
success or failure of an organization.
WHAT IMC MEANS
We all know that equity of a brand or a company is the
relationship between the customer and the brand or organization.
IMC is an process for managing the customer relationship that
drive brand value.
More specifically, it is a cross-functional process for creating and
nourishing profitable relationships with customers and other
stakeholders by strategically controlling or influencing all
messages sent to these groups and encouraging data-driven,
purposeful dialogue with them. To make sure the definition is
clear, let's look at of its major elements:
1. Cross functional process means that all of the company's
major departments (and outside communication agencies) that
touch the customer must way of working together in the
planning and monitoring of brand relationships.
2. Creating and nourishing stakeholder relationships
means attracting new and then interacting with them to find
ways the company can further satisfy their wants and needs.
The more satisfied customers or other stakeholders are, the
more business or support they will generally give to a company.
Nourishing means not only retaining customers and stakeholders
but also increasing the company's percentage of their category
purchases and support.
3. Profitable customer relationships are specified because
not all relationships are of equal value to a company. Some
customers are more profitable to a company than others
because of the quantity they buy, the types of products they
buy, or the amount of servicing they require.
4. Strategically controlling or influencing all messages means
recognizing that everything a company does sends a message
how it makes its products, how products perform, how it sets
prices, through what kinds of stores it provides its services or
sells its products, and how its employees act. In other words, all
aspects of the marketing mix deliver messages and all of these
messages need to be either strategically controlled or influenced.
To strategically control or influence brand messages means to
plan and monitor them to ensure they have consistent meaning.
5. Encouraging purposeful dialogue recognizes that
customers are tired of intrusive telemarketing calls, junk mail,
interruptive commercials, and overcommercialization of events.
Customers want the ability to interact with companies and
initiate a discussion when they have a need to do so, and to
have this dialogue in a way and at a time convenient to them.
The interactivity discussion explains how companies can make
it easier for their customers and prospects to make purchases,
ask questions, complain when something goes wrong, or give
compliments when they are especially pleased. Communication,
in other words, is at the heart of every relationship.
To support sales increases
To encourage trial
To create awareness
To inform about a feature or benefit
To create an image
To modify attitudes
An Interactive Marketing Communication Model
(1 of 3)
TV, radio, package,
Response & Feedback
Buy/not buy, request information, visit store,
sample product, repeat
Clutter, message conflict and inconsistency
IMC Model (2 of 3)
Sender - party sending the message
Encoding - message in symbolic form
Message - word, pictures and symbols that
the sender transmits
Media - the communication channel e.g radio
Decoding - receiver assigns meaning to
symbols encoded by the sender
IMC Model (3 of 3)
Response - reaction of the receiver after
being exposed to the to the message
Feedback - the part of the receiver’s
response after being communicated to the
Noise - unplanned static or distortion
during the communication process e.g.
competitor action (Creature Comforts?)
of brand positioning
big creative idea)
selling, Public relation,
Sales, profits, and
IMC Process Model
Importance of IMC
From media advertising to multiple forms of communication.
From mass media to more specialized (niche) media, which are cantered
on specific target audiences.
From a manufacturer-dominated market to a retailer-dominated,
From general-focus advertising and marketing to data-based marketing.
From low agency accountability to greater agency accountability,
particularly in advertising.
From traditional compensation to performance-based compensation
(increased sales or benefits to the company).
From limited Internet access to 24/7 Internet availability and access to
goods and services.
The IMC Message Typology
• The Four Sources of Brand Messages
Planned messages are the marketing
communication messages delivered by
advertising, sales promotion, personal
sales, merchandising materials, press
releases, events, sponsorships, packaging,
and annual reports, to name a few.
Show winner IMC
The second type of message is the product message;
these include all messages sent by a product’s design,
performance, pricing, and distribution.
The design of a product can send powerful messages.
Operating on the principle that if it looks good, it must
be good, companies in the auto industry have always
maintained a staff of industrial designers to style cars.
Although product design is important, product
performance is even more important when it comes to
sending brand messages. As most marketers know, how
well a product performs or how well a service is
delivered, relative to expectations, is a major
determinant of whether or not customers become
Pricing and Distribution
The brand messages sent by price and distribution are
often not recognized for their importance in a brand’s
overall communication. There’s a big perceived
difference, for example, between cosmetics sold at New
Market and those sold at One Stop Mall.
Service messages come from contact with service
representatives, receptionists, secretaries, delivery
people, and all other representatives of a company.
Service messages are usually personal, real-time
interfaces between a company and a customer- and this
is what makes them especially strong.
Unplanned messages include brand- or company-
related news stories, gossip, rumors, actions of special
interest groups, comments by the trade and by
competitors, findings by government agencies or
research institutions, and word of mouth.
Employees are an important communication source,
and their views are highly credible to people they know,
as well as to reporters who interview them, particularly
in a crisis situation.
For most companies, the most critical unplanned
messages come from the news media. Such messages
often reach a relatively large audience and are seen as
having especially high credibility.
Disasters and Crises
Another type of unplanned message handled by public
relations is generated by company-related disasters. The
crisis, disaster, or emergency is the most unwanted of
unplanned messages, but crises are also a fact of life.
Traditional Marketing Communication Function
The Promotion Mix
Trade fairs and exhibitions
Newspapers and magazines
Point of sale displays
1. Brand and
4. Price sensitive
5. More demand
6. Message clutter
3. Hollow corporate missions
4. Misuse of new
Trends Driving Integration
The Disintegration & Integration of Marketing
(dates are approximations)
Focus on Brand Positioning
Marketing Model for Managing
Corporate-level message sources
Marketing Finance Human
Marketing-level message sources
Marketing-level message sources
Cross-Functional Brand Equity (IM)
Cross-Functional (IM) Team
The Promotional Message
Differentiation Show Crazy Ones
Slice of life
Mood or image
Definition of problem e.g falling
Evaluation of different tools
choice of optimum mix of promotional
Integration into overall marketing
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