O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nosso Contrato do Usuário e nossa Política de Privacidade.
O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a utilizar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nossa Política de Privacidade e nosso Contrato do Usuário para obter mais detalhes.
A bioreactor is a vessel in
which a chemical process is
carried out which involves
organisms or biochemically
active substances derived
from such organisms.
mixing and aeration.
no need for sparging
The function of the bioreactor is to
provide a suitable environment in
which an organism can efficiently
produce a target product—the target
product might be
The performance of any
bioreactor depends on the
following key factors:
BIOREACTOR SHOULD HAVE
The vessel – capable of being
operated aseptically for a number
Adequate aeration and agitation –
meet requirements of micro-
Power consumption should be as low as
Temperature control and pH should be
Sampling facilities should be provided.
Evaporation losses from fermenter
should not be excessive.
Minimal use of labor in operation,
harvesting, cleaning and maintenance.
Should have internal smooth surfaces .
Containment involves prevention of
escape of viable cells from a fermenter or
Aseptic operation involves protection
In fermentation with strict aseptic requirements it is
important to select materials that can withstand
repeated steam sterilization cycles. Two basic types
of fermenters are used.
• On small scale it is possible to use glass and/or
1. Glass vessel with a round or flat bottom and a top
flanged carrying plate.
• The large glass containers originally used were
borosilicate battery jars.
• They are sterilized by autoclaving.
• Glass is useful because it gives smooth
surfaces, is nontoxic, corrosion proof and it
is easy to examine the interior of the vessel
• A glass cylinder with stainless-steel top and
• Vessels with two stainless steel plates are also
• More expensive.
• Sterilized in situ.
• Pilot-scale and industrial scale – stainless steel
•Aseptic seal – made between
glass and glass, glass and
metal or metal and metal joints
between bioreactor vessel and
a detachable top or base plate.
• Adequate provision for temperature control effect design of vessel
• Heat is produced by microbial activity and mechanical agitation. If
this heat is not ideal for particular manufacturing process then it may
be added to or removed from the system.
• Provision of heat – by placing the fermenter in thermostatically
controlled bath or by use of internal heating coils or by a silicone
heating jacket through which water is circulated
• Silicone jacket consists of double silicone rubber mats wrapped
around the vessel with heating wires between the two mats.
• Cooling surface/cooling water. With increase in size of fermenter,
silicone jackets are inadequate to remove heat produced by
fermentation process so internal coils are used and cold water is
circulated to achieve correct temperature.
Aeration provide microorganisms
culture with sufficient oxygen for
It is mixing or uniform
suspension of microbial cells in
homogeneous nutrient medium.
Mechanical agitation is required
in fungal and actinomycete
Structural components involved
in aeration and agitation
Aeration system (sparger)
Achieve mixing objectives – bulk fluid
and gas-phase mixing, air dispersion,
oxygen transfer, heat transfer,
suspension of solid particles and
maintaining uniform environment
throughout vessel contents.
Baffles incorporated into
agitated vessels of all sizes to
prevent vortex and to improve
Metal strips roughly one-tenth
of vessel diameter and attached
radially to the wall.
Usually, four baffles are used,
but larger bioreactor may have 6
or 8 baffles.
Minimizes microbial growth on
Extra cooling coils may be
attached to baffles to improve
AERATION SYSTEM (SPARGER)
• A sparger is defined as a device for
introducing air into liquid of fermenter
• Three basic types – porous sparger
-Orifice sparger – a perforated pipe
-Nozzle sparger – an open or partially
-Combined sparger-agitator may be used
in laboratory fermenters.
Addition of inoculum,
nutrients and other
Sampling ports to test.
Additions of acid/alkali –
silicone tubes pumped by
peristaltic pumps after aseptic
In larger bioreactor nutrition
reservoirs and associated piping-
integral parts – can be sterilized
Foam is produced during most
Foaming may occur either due to
a medium component, e.g.,
protein present in the medium, or
due to some compound produced
by the microorganism. Proteins
are present in corn-steep liquor,
pharma media, peanut meal,
soybean meal, etc.
Excessive foaming – danger
that filters become wet resulting
Siphoning – loss of all or part
of contents of bioreactor.
A bioreactor may also refer to a
device or system meant to
grow cells or tissues in the context
of cell culture.
These devices are being developed
for use in tissue engineering
The bioreactor is modular in
nature and carry out all the
processes of fermentation in a
single contained environment.
Bioreactor plays a core role in
Stirred tank bioreactors are
commonly used in fermentation
Due to simple technology and
higher yield solid state bioreactors
are widely used in industries.
Ethanol fermentation is done by
saccharomyces cerevisiae in
Organic acids e.g. acetic acid
and butyric acid are formed in
bioreactor by the Eubacterium
Thienamycine an antibiotic also
produced in bioreactor.
Glucomylase is produced by
Auerobasidium pullulans in