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Environmental fiscal reforms abbottabad soild waste management Saadullah Ayaz

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Environmental fiscal reforms abbottabad soild waste management Saadullah Ayaz

  1. 1. Environmental Fiscal Reforms Saadullah Ayaz IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  2. 2. ABOUT IUCN IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources is the world’s oldest and largest global environmental network- a democratic membership union with more than 1,000 government and NGO member organizations, and almost 11,000 volunteer scientists in more than 160 countries worldwide IUCN helps the world find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and development challenges. It supports scientific research, manages field projects all over the world and brings governments, non-government organizations, United Nations agencies, companies and local communities together to develop and implement policy, laws and best practice IUCN has a status of an ‘Observer’ in UN General Assembly IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  3. 3. WHAT DOES IUCN DO? Knowledge: IUCN develops and supports cutting edge conservation science, particularly in species, ecosystems, biodiversity, and the impact these have on human livelihoods Action: IUCN runs thousands of field projects around the world to better manage natural environments Influence: IUCN supports governments, NGOs, international conventions, UN organizations, companies and communities to develop laws, policy and best-practice Empowerment: IUCN helps implement laws, policy and best-practice by mobilizing organizations, providing resources, training people and monitoring results IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  4. 4. IUCN- A GLOBAL UNION Headquarters in Gland, Switzerland IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  5. 5. THE DRIVING FORCE IUCN’s VISION A just world that values and conserves nature IUCN’s Mission Influence, encourage and assist societies to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and ensure any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  6. 6. CORE PROGRAMME AREAS IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  7. 7. OUR STRUCTURE IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  8. 8. IUCN’s VALUE PROPOSITION Knowledge Empowerment Governance Establishing a common Impact standard for Building new approaches, services approaches and a and products that allow Applying, and in constituency that can for scaling-up, some cases tailoring, maintain, promote adaptation and quality knowledge to a and extend the Research and data control specific situation application of for sustainable sustainability and/or the needs of resource partners at any level management Reach IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  9. 9. IUCN IN PAKISTAN A long term commitment since 1985 Several offices, around 112 staff, Country office at Karachi largest Country Programme of the Union in the World since 1996 IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  10. 10. MEMBERS IN PAKISTAN – 29 Gilgit-Baltistan Administration Pak Env. Protection Found Government of Balochistan IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  11. 11. Banking with Nature Introducing Environmental Fiscal Reforms IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  12. 12. ENVIRONMENT AND POVERTY NEXUS A healthy environment is crucial to poverty reduction and sustainable growth With the degradation of ecosystems comes a decline in the quality of environmental services that ecosystems provide The annual cost to Pakistan’s economy of environmental damage and natural resource degradation is nearly 365 billion rupees, or 6% of GDP (WB 2006) Immediate and most severe effects of environmental degradation are suffered by the poor Strengthening environmental management can support economic growth, while improving health and productivity. Financing pro-poor environmental management in conjunction with other development activities is of the utmost importance IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  13. 13. WHAT IS EFR? Innovative policies are required to achieve development targets while ensuring environmental sustainability. Environmental Fiscal Reform (EFR) is one such approach, and allows fiscal resources to be managed in such a way that development challenges can be tackled without sacrificing environmental conservation BANKING WITH NATURE EFR has been described as ‘a strategy that redirects government taxation and expenditure programmes to create an integrated set of activities in support of sustainable development and conserves environment’ The idea is to use fiscal instruments, directly or indirectly modifying the prices of biodiversity related goods and services, to influence behavior in order to provide incentives for environmental protection. The funds raised through these measures can be channelled to specific priority sectors, such as environmental conservation and poverty reduction IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  14. 14. ENVIRONMENTAL FISCAL REFORMS It is in this context that environmental fiscal reforms (EFR), and particularly pro- poor EFR, can assist the government in broadening the revenue base, while achieving both poverty reduction and environmental goals The environmental benefits of EFR includes; pollution prevention and improved natural resources management; mobilization of funds for investment in pollution control and safe disposal of waste; and mobilization of funds for enforcement activities VIABLE EFR INSTRUMENTS FOR PAKISTAN Charging appropriate ‘prices and user charges’ for various natural resources extraction activities and social services Making ‘polluters pay’ for internalizing externalities that polluters impose on the society; rationalizing environmentally harmful subsidies and taxation measures; and streamlining budgetary processes so as to further the goals of environmental improvement and poverty reduction Environmental Fiscal Reforms IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  15. 15. BENEFITS OF EFR (WIN-WIN-WIN) Poverty Reduction •Improving environmental quality e.g. better natural resource management or provision of environmental infrastructure: –poor depend on environment for health, livelihoods and vulnerability •Fiscal revenues: revenues for pro-poor expenditure on health, education etc •Protection or compensation to protect poor from price rises Environmental Benefits Fiscal Benefits •Revenue mobilization •Incentives for sustainable •Reduced distortions natural resource management •Reduced drains on •Incentives for curbing •public finances pollution (air, water, soil) •Funds for environment agencies and investments IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  16. 16. EFR TESTING AND APPLICATION IN PAKISTAN IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  17. 17. EFR PROJECT PROFILE AIM: Poverty reduction and environmental improvement through undertaking a set of environmental fiscal reforms initiatives. FINANCIAL SUPPORT: Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC) DURATION: May 2006 to April 2009- Extended till June 2010 PROJECT PARTNERS: IUCN, Planning Commission, district Government, Abbottabad RESEARCH PARTNERS: Pakistan Institute for Development Economics & Sustainable Development Policy Institute PILOT DISTRICT: Abbottabad IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  18. 18. PROJECT COMPONENTS • Action Research and Awareness Raising • Enabling Institutional, Legal and Policy Framework • Capacity Building • Piloting Select EFR Options • Wider Dissemination for Replications IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  19. 19. Action Research - Research reports on solid waste, drinking water, and quarrying and mining, fiscal decentralization - Five (05) fact sheets completed (for easy understanding) - Sector wise recommendations translated into Urdu - Situation analysis of solid waste management in Nawanshehr town - Water analysis of natural water resources (survey by PCRWR) IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  20. 20. http://www.iucn.org/about/union/secretariat/offices/asia/asia_where_work/pakistan/projects/archived_projects/proj_arc_efr/ IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  21. 21. Advocacy, Partnerships and Capacity Building - Liaison with City District Government of Abbottabad - Extensive awareness, community organization/ mobilization for development participatory solid waste management system in Nawanshehr (pilot) - Trainings (Community) PSWM, waste segregation, reduction, disposal, composting) (Local administration) solid waste management, efficient collection, waste segregation, safe disposal, route planning/ mapping IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  22. 22. PILOTING EFR OPTIONS (Case Study of Solid Waste Management in Abbottabad) IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  23. 23. Development and operationalization of a participatory solid waste management system in UC Nawanshehr - Social Mobilization~ community groups, youth associations, school children and women folks dialogue conducted (70 shopkeepers) door to door campaign (725 houses) Citizens seminar, youth forum operationalized - Social Organization~ sixty two (62) community activists School Environmental Clubs (09 established) Mohellah Environmental Committees (06) IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  24. 24. Capacity building training of staff of Town Committee on participatory solid waste management, mapping, segregation, recycling, coordination with line agencies (district government)- 16 staff members trained training community groups on participatory solid waste management system, developing and sustaining primary collection system, organizational management, financial record keeping, coordination and liaison development (62 activists trained) Other ~ training of communities (& women) on kitchen gardening and compositing (90 trainees) IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  25. 25. Improved measures for primary collection of waste model system nine (09) ‘beads’ were developed in the area (each comprising of around 120 households)- at source segregation of organic and recyclables have also been introduced in 09 beads (08) mohellahs where communities have hired their own waste collectors through nominal contribution (pro- poor initiative) IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  26. 26. Development of secondary waste collection system - Proper designed secondary collection points have been developed in nine (09) mohellahs, - Route planning for waste collectors (map developed) - Repair of tractor and improvisation of existing trolley IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  27. 27. the change… IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  28. 28. Application of Pro- poor fiscal measures in solid waste sector - Eight (08) mohellahs have hired waste collectors (paid from revenue) - Revenue from selling recyclables by School Environment clubs - Nineteen (19 kitchen gardens from organic compost) - (19) garbage merchants have been registered in lieu of payment of tax to the Town Committee - A frame- work for scavengers is also being devised to regulate their working IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  29. 29. ACHIEVEMENTS OF EFR PROJECT • Progress achieved as per MTR recommendations • Research work received high appreciation • Chapter from EFR project was published in the Oxford University Press, London • Technical paper on EFR (Pakistan Engineering Congress 2010) • Three papers on EFR presented in Special Technical Session on EFR at the 23th Annual General Meeting of “Pakistan Society of Development Economics • Panel discussion were held on “Pro-poor Environmental Fiscal Reforms” during Conference on “Peace and Sustainable Development in South Asia: Issues and Challenges of Globalization” held at SDPI • ‘EFR’ as subject at PIDE (M. Phil/ MSc. Env. Economics Programme • Wider replication of EFR in IUCN’s on- going programmes (BPSD) • Opportunities for up- scaling (district level) IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  30. 30. LESSONS LEARNT • Efficacy of EFR proved (revenue, pro-poor support and env. sustainability) • In-depth research. Findings to be tailored to create real understanding and integration into policy and decision making process • EFR being new concept~ putting in pace a self sustaining long term EFR mechanism requires improved coordination mechanisms essential to obtain long term results in this regard.~ local level consultations extremely important to develop consensus among stakeholders to select and adopt EFR options • Buy-in from policy-makers is only possible if the project is able to demonstrate concrete changes on the ground~ dedicated attention to carry out work is of essence, at least for a next couple of months till the system is effectively tested and completely adopted • Capacity building at all level is a must ~ since expertise not available anywhere • Strong linkages with provincial and federal government tiers are required • Up scaling and replication of EFR activities is essential IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  31. 31. WAY FORWARD (RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PAKISTAN) • Successful institutionalization of - Reform Process. Quite an easy job??? (in complex socio- political situation) • Support translation of learning form EFR research in to actions (elsewhere in Pakistan) • Long- term impact~ integration into sectoral polices/ plans- buy- in from policy makers • Ensuring self- sustenance of pilots~ continue provision of technical backstopping • Capacity building/ awareness (at all levels)- gaps? • Up- scaling and wider replication of EFR is suitable areas in Pakistan in other sectors (drinking water, eco-tourism, quarrying and mining etc) IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
  32. 32. Thanks For more information” Saadullah Ayaz Coordinator Climate Change/ Environmental Fiscal Reforms/ Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities IUCN Pakistan Email: saad.ayaz@iucn.org IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

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