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Makerspaces: Theory and
Background
R. Redekopp, Ph.D. - based largely on the book Invent to
Learn
Dewey
Community and experience matter.
Meaningful projects should connect to real world experience.
Observation and experi...
Piaget
Piaget's four stages of intellectual (or cognitive) development are:
Sensorimotor. Birth through ages 18-24 months ...
Papert
Applying Piaget to mathematics. His world of gears and where it led him - giving
students objects with which to thi...
Papert
Developed the Logo computer language, often called turtle graphics, to provide
students with ‘objects to think with...
Reggio Emilia
Italian city that decided to create an integrated approach to education
Culture, environment, and community ...
Constructivism vs. Constructionism
Constructivism - people construct their learning by combining experience with prior
kno...
Making, Tinkering and Engineering
From Invent to Learn:
Making is about the active role construction plays in learning. Th...
Making
From Invent to Learn:
They built, tested, and re-built their clocks and timers to solve these problems and
get bett...
Tinkering
From Invent to Learn:
When we acknowledge that there may be man right answers to a question, it gives
children p...
Engineering
From Invent to Learn:
The origin of the word “engineer” is a maker of an “enigma,” which is from the
Latin wor...
What are they thinking?
The teacher is a researcher in the makerspace.
Mistakes happen. What do we learn about our learner...
The Design Process
Iterative design has become much easier with the ability to do rapid prototyping and
test ‘beta’ versio...
The Design Process
Iterative design has become much
easier with the ability to do rapid
prototyping and test ‘beta’ versio...
Alternate Design Process Approaches
There are many ways to think about the design process, so don’t get locked into one. A...
Alternate Design Process Approaches
Design for Change model of children changing the world. They use the model of:
Feel-Im...
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Makerspaces theory and background 2

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An overview of makerspace philosophy mainly from the book Invent to Learn

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Makerspaces theory and background 2

  1. 1. Makerspaces: Theory and Background R. Redekopp, Ph.D. - based largely on the book Invent to Learn
  2. 2. Dewey Community and experience matter. Meaningful projects should connect to real world experience. Observation and experience should be the basis of problem solving. Image: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:John_Dewey_cph.3a51565.jpg
  3. 3. Piaget Piaget's four stages of intellectual (or cognitive) development are: Sensorimotor. Birth through ages 18-24 months - focus on what is immediate Preoperational. Toddlerhood (18-24 months) through early childhood (age 7) - mainly intuition Concrete operational. Ages 7 to 12 - demonstrate logical, concrete reasoning Formal operational. Adolescence through adulthood - can work with abstract ideas and relationships Image: https://reynaldojrflores.wordpress.com/2013/06/08/module-2-learning-styles-theories-part-3/
  4. 4. Papert Applying Piaget to mathematics. His world of gears and where it led him - giving students objects with which to think. Mindstorms is the book where it all starts. “Many years later when I read Piaget this incident served me as a model for his notion of assimilation, except I was immediately struck by the fact that his discussion does not do full justice to his own idea. He talks almost entirely about cognitive aspects of assimilation. But there is also an affective component.” p. 2 of Invent To Learn [my emphasis] But it’s not about gears - it’s about a child’s passion. Image - https://pixabay.com/en/gear-gears-graphic-transmission-472006/
  5. 5. Papert Developed the Logo computer language, often called turtle graphics, to provide students with ‘objects to think with’ in mathematics. Many other versions have been created - most notably LEGO Logo robotics. Students are able to physically make the moves that the ‘turtle’ would make before they program it - to embody or make ‘concrete’ the concepts.
  6. 6. Reggio Emilia Italian city that decided to create an integrated approach to education Culture, environment, and community matter. Student interest matters. Projects are dynamic and flexible and may have pauses or disruptions and ‘do- overs.’ Curriculum is not integrated or dynamic enough.
  7. 7. Constructivism vs. Constructionism Constructivism - people construct their learning by combining experience with prior knowledge - not through ’transmission’ from teacher to student. Constructionism - “... the idea that learning is most effective when part of an activity the learner experiences as constructing a meaningful product. (Papert, 1986) in Invent to Learn.
  8. 8. Making, Tinkering and Engineering From Invent to Learn: Making is about the active role construction plays in learning. The maker has a product in mind when working with tools and materials. Tinkering is a mindset - a playful way to approach and solve problems through direct experience, experimentation, and discovery. Engineering extracts [romco[;es frp, direct experience. It builds a bridge between intuition and the formal aspects of science by being able to better explain, measure, and predict the world around us.
  9. 9. Making From Invent to Learn: They built, tested, and re-built their clocks and timers to solve these problems and get better results. The object of the lesson was not to build a timer or to program a computer. The object was to empower children to use their brains and anything they could put their hands on to solve a problem.
  10. 10. Tinkering From Invent to Learn: When we acknowledge that there may be man right answers to a question, it gives children permission to feel safe while thinking and problem solving, not just when they answer correctly. Sherry Turkle and Seymour Papert argue that equal access to mathematics and science (including computer science) for women is not just a matter of historical gender equality, but a basic imbalance in valuing only “ abstract, formal, and logical” ways to think about science. ... tinkering as an alternate, but equally valuable approach to science.
  11. 11. Engineering From Invent to Learn: The origin of the word “engineer” is a maker of an “enigma,” which is from the Latin word ingenium, meaning a clever invention. Engineering is the application of scientific principles to design, build, and invent. We teach children science and math so they can make the world a better place, not so they can pass tests.
  12. 12. What are they thinking? The teacher is a researcher in the makerspace. Mistakes happen. What do we learn about our learners in the process of handling their mistakes? How do we support them? From Invent to Learn: Making is a way of documenting the thinking of a learner in a shareable artifact. Stages of a project ‘under construction’ offer important evidence of productive thinking or scaffolding opportunities.
  13. 13. The Design Process Iterative design has become much easier with the ability to do rapid prototyping and test ‘beta’ versions of a product - physical or computer based.
  14. 14. The Design Process Iterative design has become much easier with the ability to do rapid prototyping and test ‘beta’ versions of a product - physical or computer based. The risk is that not enough thought goes into the design before students want to prototype.
  15. 15. Alternate Design Process Approaches There are many ways to think about the design process, so don’t get locked into one. And it is not step-by- step!!! For example: The well know IDEO in their University Toolkit talks about the stages of : The brief – Inspiration – Concepting – Refinement – Realisation; Design for Change, referenced below, in the ‘I can’ method calls their stages: Feel – Imagine – Do – Share; At Butterfly Works we worked with: Social Need – Research – Ideation – CoCreation Workshop – Making – Pilot – Scaling; and the ‘Creation Flow’ of the THNK Creative Leadership program, uses the stages: Sensing – Visioning – Prototyping – Scaling. From: https://emerbeamer.wordpress.com/2013/08/07/why-you-should-use-design-thinking-approaches-in-education/
  16. 16. Alternate Design Process Approaches Design for Change model of children changing the world. They use the model of: Feel-Imagine-Do-Share, which develops the values of empathy, ethics, engagement and elevation Above all: Question the question!!! From: https://emerbeamer.wordpress.com/2013/08/07/why-you-should-use-design-thinking-approaches-in-education/

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