BIM 7th semester
1. Model of Decision Making
2. Decision Tree
3. Decision Styles
4. Decision Theories
5. Group Decision Making
6. Improving Decision Making
Model Of Decision Making
1. Classical model
2. Implicit favorite model
3. Intuitive model
obtain complete and perfect information
eliminate uncertainty and risk
evaluate everything rationally and logically
Decision maker follow following model
1. Investigate the situation
2. Develop Alternatives
3. Evaluate Alternative and select the best one
4. Implement and monitor
Implicit favorite model
Deals with complex and non routine decisions.
In this approach, the manager first choose an alternative solution to the
problem and highlights its strength, and compare with other
This approach can be observed in the purchase of various favorite items in
which a customer gives arguments in favor of his choice on the basis of norms
such as price, quality, appearance, easily availability, after-sales service etc. to
reject other items of same utility
Uses intuitive tools for decision making like experiences, ideas, feelings.
Applicable only when decision maker are have strong intuitive abilities
Decision tree is a representation in graphic form of a number of possible future
events that may affect a decision.
decision tree consist of nodes, branches, probability estimates and payoffs.
Managers using directive style have low tolerance for ambiguity
and are rational in their way of thinking.
They are efficient and logical.
They make fast decisions with minimal information and assessing
Managers with an analytic style have high tolerance
for ambiguity than do directive type and are rational in their way
They need more information and consider more alternatives.
long time for decision
Managers with conceptual style have high tolerance
for ambiguity and an intuitive way of thinking.
They tend to be very broad to their outlook and consider many
They are at finding creative solutions to problems.
Managers with behavioral style have low tolerance
for ambiguity and an intuitive way of thinking.
They work well with others. They are receptive to suggestions from
Short term decision
1.Classical decision theory(economic man model):
Classical view assumes that decision making is based on rational process and
always follows the sequence of steps for decision making.
It describes how decisions should be made rather than how decisions are
-Problem is clear and unambiguous.
-All alternatives and consequences are known.
-No time or cost constraints exists.
2.Behavioral theory(administrative Man model):
• Developed By Herbert Simon
•Based on administrative model i.e. how decisions are made
• The two main component of this theory are:
i. Bounded Rationality:
Decision maker is limited in their Rationality because of different factors such
•Decision maker become rational but within the limits of managers' ability and
availability of information.
• Managers make decisions based on alternatives that are satisfactory.
The examples of satisfying decisions are fair price, reasonable profit, adequate
market share, proper quality products etc.
Group is a collection of two or more people who work with one another
regularly to achieve common goal.
Group Decision Making
Group decision making is process of choosing the
best alternative from the number of available
alternatives through the discussion and analysis by
the group of people.
• Provides more information, ideas and solutions. (Diversity of experiences
•builds team feelings
• Generates more alternatives
Domination of the powerful persons
Improving individual decision making
Some people follow rational decision making model whereas some follow non
Individual look for solution that satisfy rather than biasness, prejudices in
Consideration while making decision:
i. Analyze the situation
ii. Be aware of biases
iii. Don’t assume your decision style is appropriate for every job
iv. Try to enhance creativity
v. Change personal negative habits
vi. Calculate risk and return
Improving group decision making
-Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
- Electronic Meeting
This method uses a group of people usually from five to ten.
Ideas are generated for specific problem through group creativity.
Evaluation and ranking of ideas is not allowed in this method.
This technique is used in advertising and some other fields.
Nominal Group Techniques
It is the structure technique used to generate the creative and innovative ideas.
That idea will be accepted which holds the highest rank.
The group meets face-to-face
Each member presents one idea to the group
Discussion and ranking is done
High ranked idea is used for decision making
A Delphi technique is the modification of NGT
Each individual member independently writes down comments, suggestions
All the comments are sent to a central location, where they are compiled
Finally decisions are made in written form through consensus
Electronic Meeting is one of the techniques that combine the NGT with
sophisticated computer technology.
up to 5o people sit around a table that is empty except for a series of computer
The issues are presented to the participants who type their response on to their
The individual comments as well as aggregate votes are displayed on a
projection screen in the room.
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