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FAMILY HEALTH NURSING PROCESS
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PAMELA G. REED

The mid-range theory of self-transcendence by Pamela G. Reeds was developed in 1990 (Reed, 1991). It was largely based on the approach of deductive reformulation. The deductive reformulation strategy emanated from Pamela’s professors during her time at Wayne State University. It involves the use of knowledge acquired from the non-nursing theory that is redrawn deductively from a nursing conceptual model, and the theorist used life span developmental psychology for adult social-cognitive and transpersonal development to reformulate this mid-range theory by applying the principles of Martha E. Roger’s conceptual system that describes the unitary human being (Reed, 1991).

The mid-range theory of self-transcendence by Pamela G. Reeds was developed in 1990 (Reed, 1991). It was largely based on the approach of deductive reformulation. The deductive reformulation strategy emanated from Pamela’s professors during her time at Wayne State University. It involves the use of knowledge acquired from the non-nursing theory that is redrawn deductively from a nursing conceptual model, and the theorist used life span developmental psychology for adult social-cognitive and transpersonal development to reformulate this mid-range theory by applying the principles of Martha E. Roger’s conceptual system that describes the unitary human being (Reed, 1991).

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PAMELA G. REED

  1. 1. PAMELA G. REED THEORY OF SELF TRANSCENDENCE By: ROMMEL LUIS C. ISRAEL III
  2. 2. ABOUT PAMELA REED Born in Detroit, Michigan Baccalaureate degree from Wayne State University-1974 Master of Science in psychiatric-mental health of children and adolescents and in nursing education-1976 Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/
  3. 3. ABOUT PAMELA REED Ph.D. concentration in nursing theory and research, minor in adult development and aging- 1982 Dissertation research focused on the relationship between well-being and spiritual perspectives on life and death terminally ill and well individuals. Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/
  4. 4. TRANSCENDENCE the state of excelling or surpassing or going beyond usual limits Synonym: Superiority, Domination, Mastery, Supremacy, Importance, Excellence, Greatness Power to dominate or defeat a state of being or existence above and beyond the limits of material experience
  5. 5. NURSING PARADIGM PERSON: People are viewed as human beings who develop over the lifespan through interactions with other people and within an environment of changing complexity that could both positively and negatively contribute to health and well-being. ENVIRONMENT: The environment is composed of family, social networks, physical surroundings, and community resources, all of which make significant contributions to the health processes that nurses influence through their management of the therapeutic interactions among people, objects, and nursing activities. Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/
  6. 6. NURSING PARADIGM HEALTH: Defines health in the context of well-being. Well- being is a sense of feeling whole and healthy, according to one’s own criteria for wholeness and health. NURSING: The role of nursing activity is to assist people through interpersonal and therapeutic management of their environment to promote health and well-being. Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/
  7. 7. DR. REED’S 2 MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS •Human beings are integral to their environment. •Self-Transcendence is a developmental imperative. • Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/ •
  8. 8. HUMAN BEING ARE INTEGRAL TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT •The theory was influenced by Martha Roger’s Science of Unitary Human Beings, where it is believed that humans are one and co- extensive with the environment. Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/ MARTHA ROGERS Science of Unitary Human Beings
  9. 9. HUMAN BEING ARE INTEGRAL TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT Human being is more than and different than the sum of its parts and that we have continuous interaction with the environment, exchanging matter and energy (Rogers, 1980). Reed believes that as person with these innate characteristics, we are able to expand our current boundaries to help attain optimum wellness, healthy state of mind and a good sense of well-being. Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/
  10. 10. HUMAN BEING ARE INTEGRAL TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT • It is important to understand that when we talk about expanding our boundaries, the theory postulates 4 ways of self- transcendence (Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Temporal and Transpersonal) in accomplishing these human potentials. Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela- reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/
  11. 11. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE IS A DEVELOPMENTAL IMPERATIVE Self-Transcendence theory posits the role of the person as a human resource and as an integral component to well-being, as we are all capable of development in which progress can be observed through outward expression. It is necessary for a nurse to recognize this importance to successfully plan and execute nursing interventions. Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/
  12. 12. REED’S SELF- TRANSCENDENCE RELATIONSHIP OF CONCEPTS • Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self- Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/ pamela-reeds-theory-of- self-transcendence/ •
  13. 13. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE CONCEPT Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/ Reed (1991) defines self-transcendence as: “expansion of self-conceptual boundaries multidimensionally: • inwardly (e.g., through introspective experiences) • outwardly (e.g., by reaching out to others), and • temporally (whereby past and future are integrated into the present). • transpersonal expansion, in which the individual connects “with dimensions beyond the typically discernible world” (Reed, 2003).
  14. 14. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE CONCEPT Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/ People can be considered open systems (as opposed to closed systems, which do not take in new information and are not open to change) whose only obstacle between themselves and self-transcendence is the boundary they impose upon themselves. Humans need some conceptual boundaries, of course, but the expansion of these boundaries outward to include more of the environment, more human beings, etc., puts people in a state of greater connectedness with their environment and encourages a sense of “wholeness” they may not otherwise have (Reed, 1991).
  15. 15. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE CONCEPT Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/ This state of expanded consciousness is what Reed calls a developmental imperative; like Viktor Frankl and Abraham Maslow, Reed’s theory posits that self-transcendence is a natural and desired developmental stage, which people must reach in order to be fulfilled and to have a sense of purpose (Reed, 2003).
  16. 16. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE CONCEPT Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/ Three important concepts form the core of Reed’s theory, including self- transcendence; the other two concepts are: Vulnerability: the awareness of one’s own mortality that develops with age, health issues, and crises. Well-being: the sense of being healthy, whole, and generally fulfilled and satisfied with one’s state.
  17. 17. SELF- TRANSCENDENCE THEORY MODEL • Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self- Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/ pamela-reeds-theory-of- self-transcendence/ •
  18. 18. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE CONCEPT Reference: Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence. (2019, May 19). PSYCH-MENTAL HEALTH NP. https://pmhealthnp.com/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/ These three concepts are vital pieces of the three major hypotheses of Reed’s theory: • Older adults (especially those nearing the end of their life) will generally have higher self-transcendence than younger people (note: this has been supported by research, e.g., Ellermann & Reed, 2001). • Conceptual boundaries can fluctuate, and will likely affect well-being when they do. • The relationship between vulnerability, self-transcendence, and well-being is modified and facilitated by a person’s own traits and characteristics and the environment in which they are situated (Reed, 1991).
  19. 19. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE: APPLICATION TO CLINICAL SETTING Reference: Abu Khait, A., Sabo, K. and Shellman, J. (2020). Analysis and Evaluation of Reed’s Theory of Self- Transcendence. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, [online] 34(2), pp.170–187. doi:10.1891/rtnp-d-19-00015. Reed's theory provides concepts that relate to nursing interventions, which foster the patients' ability to experience multi-level self-transcendence and, thus, enhanced well- being. Applying Reed's theory in clinical practice underpins professional enrichment and brings forth holistic care that assists in facilitating well-being.
  20. 20. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE: APPLICATION TO CLINICAL SETTING Reference: Abu Khait, A., Sabo, K. and Shellman, J. (2020). Analysis and Evaluation of Reed’s Theory of Self- Transcendence. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, [online] 34(2), pp.170–187. doi:10.1891/rtnp-d-19-00015. Reed's theory of self-transcendence propels the individual beyond constrictive viewpoints of self and the world. The theory is useful for patients at all life-stages and in many different contexts.
  21. 21. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE: RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE Reference: Abu Khait, A., Sabo, K. and Shellman, J. (2020). Analysis and Evaluation of Reed’s Theory of Self- Transcendence. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, [online] 34(2), pp.170–187. doi:10.1891/rtnp-d-19-00015. Nurses can draw on Reed's theory to develop activities that enhance patients' environment in order to promote self-transcendence. These theory-based activities can expand healthy self- boundaries intrapersonally, interpersonally, transpersonally, and temporally.
  22. 22. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE: APPLICATION Reference: Self-Transcendence Theory by Pamela G. Reed | Free Essay Example. (n.d.). StudyCorgi.com. https://studycorgi.com/self-transcendence-theory-by-pamela-g-reed/ Pamela developed this theory with the idea of nursing processes geared toward achieving human well-being. As such, the theory of self-transcendence is applied in three distinct areas – nursing practice, education, and research.
  23. 23. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE: IN NURSING PRACTICE Reference: Self-Transcendence Theory by Pamela G. Reed | Free Essay Example. (n.d.). StudyCorgi.com. https://studycorgi.com/self-transcendence-theory-by-pamela-g-reed/ Nursing practices or interventions adopted are largely based on constructs of the person (self-transcendence), well-being (health), and vulnerability (environment). In this regard, nurses should apply diverse nursing activities, such as meditation, life assessment, and spirituality to facilitate the development of self- conceptual limits (Drageset et al., 2017). Additionally, the theory is applied in self-reflection, hope, altruism, and faith, as well as in other group psychotherapy and cancer support groups to allow patients to assess their values and share experiences in life to determine meaning in their health conditions (Milani, Amiri, Vejdani, Salehiniya, & Malek-khahi, 2017).
  24. 24. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE: IN EDUCATION Reference: Self-Transcendence Theory by Pamela G. Reed | Free Essay Example. (n.d.). StudyCorgi.com. https://studycorgi.com/self-transcendence-theory-by-pamela-g-reed/ the theory of self-transcendence and its related themes are widely found in many nursing education works. Self-transcendence is seen as an example of a suitable philosophical nursing foundation. It is linked to development and health in studies. Nursing is used to facilitate processes of human capacity development. It enhances well-being, and nurses are trained on the importance of self-transcendence to understand patients with end-of-life issues.
  25. 25. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE: IN RESEARCH Reference: Self-Transcendence Theory by Pamela G. Reed | Free Essay Example. (n.d.). StudyCorgi.com. https://studycorgi.com/self-transcendence-theory-by-pamela-g-reed/ many research studies now offer empirical evidence to support the application of self- transcendence theory to enhance patient health. Patients with intractable disease, chronic health issues, and end-of-life conditions have realized improved health outcomes when concepts of this theory were applied (Vitale, Shaffer, & Acosta-Fenton, 2014). Overall, the theory of self-transcendence is widely applied in different nursing settings in which patients’ well-being could be hindered by end-of-life challenges.

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