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HEALTH STATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY (CHN 2)

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HEALTH STATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY (CHN 2)

  1. 1. HEALTH STATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY By: ROMMEL LUIS C. ISRAEL III By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 1
  2. 2. EPIDEMIOLOGY Greek Words: EPOS - which means “upon” DEMOS - which means “people” - It is the systematic, scientific study of the distribution patterns and determinants of health, diseases and conditions in a population for the purpose of promoting wellness and preventing diseases or conditions Reference: Jimenez, C. E. (2008). Community Organizing Participatory Action Research for Community Health Development. C & E Pub. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 2
  3. 3. USES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 1. Study the history of the health population and the rise and fall of diseases and changes in their character 2. Diagnose the health of the community and the condition of the people to measure the distribution and dimension of illness in terms of incidence. Prevalence, disability and mortality, to set problems in perspective and to define their relative importance and to identify groups needing special attention 3. Study the work of health services with a view of improving them. Operational research shows how community expectations can result in the actual provisions of service. Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 3
  4. 4. USES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 4. estimate the risk of disease, accident, defects, and the chances of avoiding them 5. Identify syndromes of describing the distribution and association of clinical phenomena in the population 6. Complete the clinical picture of chronic disease and describe their natural history 7. Search for causes of health and disease by comparing the experience of groups that are clearly defined by their composition, inheritance, experience, behavior, and environments Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 4
  5. 5. THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC PROCESS 1. Determine the nature, extent and scope of the problem 2. Formulate a Tentative Hypothesis 3. Collect and Analyze data to test the hypothesis 4. Plan for control 5. Implement control plan 6. Make an appropriate report 7. Conduct research Reference: Jimenez, C. E. (2008). Community Organizing Participatory Action Research for Community Health Development. C & E Pub. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 5
  6. 6. EPIDEMIOLOGIC PROCESS AND THE NURSING PROCESS The epidemiologic Process is related to the Nursing Process because it involves: 1. Assessing – data collection to determine the nature of client’s problems 2. Analyzing – Formulation of nursing diagnosis 3. Planning 4. Implementing 5. Evaluating 6. Revising or terminating, and 7. Research – to Improve the plan if needed Reference: Jimenez, C. E. (2008). Community Organizing Participatory Action Research for Community Health Development. C & E Pub. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 6
  7. 7. DETERMINE THE NATURE, EXTENT AND SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM 1.Natural History of the condition 2.Determinants influencing the condition 3.Distribution Patterns 4.Condition Frequencies Reference: Jimenez, C. E. (2008). Community Organizing Participatory Action Research for Community Health Development. C & E Pub. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 7
  8. 8. DETERMINANTS INFLUENCING THE CONDITION 1. Primary Data (essential agent) a. Parasite b. Nutritional c. Psychosocial 2. Contributing Data a. Agent b. Host c. Environment Reference: Jimenez, C. E. (2008). Community Organizing Participatory Action Research for Community Health Development. C & E Pub. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 8
  9. 9. THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRIANGLE HOST AGENT ENVIRON MENT HOST • Any organism that harbors and provides nourishment for another organism • Any species (Human or other animals) capable of being infected or affected AGENT • It is the intrinsic property of microorganism to survive and multiply in the environment to produce disease • An animate or inanimate factor that must be present or lacking for a disease or condition to occur ENVIRONMENT It affects both the agent and the host. It is the sum-total of all external condition and influences that affects the development of an organism which can be: a. Biological b. Social c. Physical Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. Jimenez, C. E. (2008). Community Organizing Participatory Action Research for Community Health Development. C & E Pub. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 9
  10. 10. AGENTS OF DISEASE AGENTS EXAMPLE OF ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS NUTRITIVE ELEMENTS Excess Deficiencies Cholesterol Vitamins, Proteins CHEMICAL AGENTS Poisons Allergens Carbon Monoxide, Drugs Ragweeds, Poison Ivy PHYSICAL AGENTS Heat, Lights, Ionizing Radiation INFECTIOUS AGENTS Metazoa Protozoa Bacteria Fungi Rickettsia Viruses Hookworms, Schistosomiasis Amoeba, Malaria Pneumonia, Typhoid, Rheumatic Fever, Lobar Histoplasmosis, Athlete’s Foot Rocky Mountain, Spotted Fever Measles, Mumps, Chicken pox, Poliomyelitis, Rabies Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 10
  11. 11. HOST FACTORS (Intrinsic Factors) Influences exposure, susceptibility, or response to agent Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. GENETIC Sickle Cell Disease AGE SEX ETHNIC GROUP PHYSIOLOGIC Fatigue, pregnancy, puberty, stress IMMUNOLOGIC EXPERIENCE Active Passive Hypersensitivity Prior to infection, immunization Maternal Antibodies, gammaglobulin INTER-CURRENT OR PRE- EXISTING DISEASE HUMAN BEHAVIOR Personal Hygiene, Food Handling By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 11
  12. 12. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS (Extrinsic Factors) Influences existence of the agent, exposure, or susceptibility to agent PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Geology, Climate BIOLOGIC ENVIRONMENT Human Population Flora Density Sources of food, influence on vertebrates and anthropods as source of agent SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Occupation Urbanization Disruption Exposure to chemical agents Urban crowding, tension and pressures Wars, Disasters Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 12
  13. 13. DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN ANALYZING EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA 1.Person –refers to the characteristics of the individual who were exposed and who contacted the infection or the disease in question 2.Place – refers to the features, factors, or conditions which existed in or described the environment in which the disease occurred 3.Time – refers both to the period during which the cases of the disease being studied were exposed to the source of infection and the period during which the illness occurred Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 13
  14. 14. TIME 1. EPIDEMIC PERIOD The Period during which the reported number of cases of a disease exceed the expected, or usual number for that period 2. YEAR For many diseases, the incidence (frequency r occurrence) is not uniform during each of 12 consecutive months. This seasonal variation is associated with variations in the risk of exposure of susceptible to the source of infection 3. PERIOD OF CONSECUTIVE YEARS Recording the reported cases of a disease over a period of years-by weeks, months, or year of occurrence. It is useful in predicting the probable future incidence of the disease and in planning appropriate prevention and control program. Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 14
  15. 15. PERSON CAN BE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF: TEIR INHERENT OR THEIR ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS Age, Race, Sex, immune status, and marital status THEIR ACTIVITIES Form of work, play, religious practices, customs CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER WHICH THEY LIVE Social, economic, and environmental conditions AGE - There is more variation in disease frequency by age than any other variable - The single most useful variable associated in describing the occurrence and distribution of disease because of the association between the person’s age and their: a. potential for exposure to a source of infection b. level of immunity or resistance c. physiologic activity at the tissue level (which sets the manifestation of a disease subsequent to infection SEX AND OCCUPATION - Males experience higher mortality rate than females for a wide range of diseases - Females have higher morbidity rates - Rationale: Because of differing pattern of behavior between sexes or activities as recreation, travel, occupation which results in different opportunities for exposure to source of infection Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 15
  16. 16. PLACE It is the geographic area described in terms of: • Street • Address • City • Municipality • Province • Region or • Country URBAN/RURAL DIFFERENCES: • Disease spreads more rapidly in urban areas because of greater population density where it provides more opportunities for susceptible individual to come in contact with a source of infection SOCIO-ECONOMIC AREAS • The incidence rate of many diseases, both communicable and chronic, varies inversely with differences in large geographic areas within a country • Geographic variations in the incidence of infectious diseases commonly results from variations in the geographic distribution of the reservoirs or vectors of the disease or in the ecological requirement of the disease agent Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 16
  17. 17. PATTERN OF OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION SPORADIC ENDEMIC EPIDEMIC EPIDEMIC By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 17
  18. 18. SPORADIC OCCURRENCE •Intermittent occurrence of a few isolated and unrelated cases in a given locality •The cases are few and scattered, so that there is no apparent relationship between them •They occur on and off intermittently through a period of time Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. EPIDEMIC By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 18
  19. 19. SPORADIC OCCURRENCE Example: RABIES • In the Philippines, there are few cases during certain weeks of the year • Cases are scattered throughout the country so that the cases are not related at all to the cases in other area Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. EPIDEMIC By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 19
  20. 20. ENDEMIC OCCURRENCE •Continuous occurrence throughout a period of time, of the usual number of cases in a given locality •The disease is always occurring in the locality and the level of occurrence is more or les constant through a period of time. •It is in a way identified in the locality itself, it may be high endemic or low endemic when the given level is continuously maintained. Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 20
  21. 21. ENDEMIC OCCURRENCE Example: • SCHISTOSOMIASIS is endemic in Leyte and Samar Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 21
  22. 22. ENDEMIC OCCURRENCE Example: • FILARIASIS is endemic in Sorsogon Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 22
  23. 23. EPIDEMIC OCCURRENCE • Unusually large number of occurrences in a relatively short period of time • There is a disproportionate relationship between the number of cases and the period of occurrence. The more the acute is the disproportion, the more urgent and serious is the problem • The number of cases is not in itself necessarily big or large, but such number of cases when compared with the usual number of cases may constitute an epidemic in a given locality, as long as that number is so much more than the usual number in that locality. Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 23
  24. 24. EPIDEMIC OCCURRENCE • Example BIRD’S FLU There has been no cases of Bird’s Flu in any area of the country, so that an occurrence of few cases in a given area in a given time would constitute a bird’s flu epidemic. Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 24
  25. 25. PANDEMIC OCCURENCE • It is the simultaneous occurrence of epidemic of the same disease in several countries. • It is another pattern of occurrence from an international perspective Example: COVID-19 Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 25
  26. 26. WHAT MAKES EPIDEMIC AMONG THE MOST INTERESTING AND MEANINGFUL AMONG THE PATTERN OF OCCURRENCES OF DISEASE? •It demands immediate effective action •The immediate action includes epidemiological investigation – emergency epidemiology as well as control Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 26
  27. 27. FACTORS CONTRIBUTORY TO EPIDEMIC OCCURRENCE AGENT FACTORS • The result of the introduction of the new disease agent into the population • It may also result from changes in the number of living microorganisms in the immediate environment or from their growth in some favorable culture medium HOST FACTORS • They are related to lower resistance as a result of exposure to the elements during flood or other disaster, to relaxed supervision of water and milk supply or sewage disposal, or to changed habit of eating. • It may be related to change in immunity and susceptibility to population density and movement, crowding, to sexual habits, personal hygiene or to changes in motivation as a result of health education ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS • Changes in the physical environment: temperature, humidity, rainfall may directly or indirectly influence equilibrium of agent and host Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 27
  28. 28. PHILIPPINE HEALTH SITUATION By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 28
  29. 29. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE PHILIPPINE • Current population is 112,737,622 as of August 26, 2022 • Philippines ranks number 13th in the world by population in the list of 235 countries/territories • Philippines is ranked 7th among 51 countries in Asia Reference: UN (World Population Prospects 2019). (2021, August 23). Philippines population 2021 - StatisticsTimes.com. Statisticstimes.com. https://statisticstimes.com/demographics/country/philippines-population.php#:~:text=The%20population%20of%20Philippines%20is%20projected%20at%20111%2C046%2C913 By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 29
  30. 30. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE PHILIPPINE Reference: Demographics of the Philippines. (2022, August 26). Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_the_Philippines#Vital_statistics By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 30
  31. 31. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE PHILIPPINE By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 31
  32. 32. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE PHILIPPINE By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 32
  33. 33. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE PHILIPPINE By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 33
  34. 34. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE PHILIPPINE The population density is high, but the distribution of the population is uneven. Parts of Metro Manila have a population density that is more than 100 times that of some outlying areas such as the mountainous area of northern Luzon. The birth rate remains significantly higher than the world average, as well as the average for the Southeast Asian region. Reference: Britannica. (2019). Philippines - Resources and power | Britannica. In Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Philippines/Resources-and-power By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 34
  35. 35. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE PHILIPPINE The Mortality rate in the early 21st century was considerably lower than it had been a few decades earlier in the latter part of the 20th century, particularly among infants, children under the age of five years, and mothers. There was also a generally steady increase in average life expectancy. The improvement in health is credited to better prenatal care and the services of more trained midwives, doctors, and nurses; improved housing, sanitation, and social security benefits; the provision of health services to government employees; the increasing number of medical and nursing school graduates; and the requirement that a medical graduate render rural service. Reference: Britannica. (2019). Philippines - Resources and power | Britannica. In Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Philippines/Resources-and-power By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 35
  36. 36. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE PHILIPPINE The demand for health care continues to outstrip available resources; a large number of trained medical professionals emigrate, particularly to the United States, and many of the poorest people still rely on the services of practitioners of traditional medicine and unlicensed midwives. Reference: By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 36
  37. 37. PHILIPPINE HEALTH SITUATION The Philippines has made significant investments and advances in health in recent years. Rapid economic growth and strong country capacity have contributed to Filipinos living longer and healthier. However, not all the benefits of this growth have reached the most vulnerable groups, and the health system remains fragmented. Reference: HEALTH SITUATION. (n.d.). Retrieved August 26, 2022, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/136828/ccsbrief_phl_en.pdf By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 37
  38. 38. PHILIPPINE HEALTH SITUATION Health insurance now covers 92% of the population. Maternal and child health services have improved, with more children living beyond infancy, a higher number of women delivering at health facilities and more births being attended by professional service providers than ever before. Access to and provision of preventive, diagnostic and treatment services for communicable diseases have improved, while there are several initiatives to reduce illness and death due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Reference: HEALTH SITUATION. (n.d.). Retrieved August 26, 2022, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/136828/ccsbrief_phl_en.pdf By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 38
  39. 39. PHILIPPINE HEALTH SITUATION Despite substantial progress in improving the lives and health of people in the Philippines, achievements have not been uniform and challenges remain. Deep inequities persist between regions, richand the poor, and different population groups. Many Filipinos continue to die or suffer from illnesses that have well-proven, cost- effective interventions, such tuberculosis, HIV and dengue, or diseases affecting mothers and children. Reference: HEALTH SITUATION. (n.d.). Retrieved August 26, 2022, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/136828/ccsbrief_phl_en.pdf By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 39
  40. 40. PHILIPPINE HEALTH SITUATION Many people lack sufficient knowledge to make informed decisions about their own health. Rapid economic development, urbanization, escalating climate change, and widening exposure to diseases and pathogens in an increasingly global world increase the risks associated with disasters, environmental threats, and emerging and re-emerging infections Reference: HEALTH SITUATION. (n.d.). Retrieved August 26, 2022, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/136828/ccsbrief_phl_en.pdf By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 40
  41. 41. PHILIPPINE HEALTH SITUATION COOPERATION FOR HEALTH The global vision of the world in 2030, spelled out in the Sustainable Development Goals, aligns with the Philippines’ 25-year vision AmBisyon Natin 2040. There is an ongoing process of integrating SDGs into AmBisyon Natin 2040 and into national, sectoral and subnational plans and frameworks Reference: HEALTH SITUATION. (n.d.). Retrieved August 26, 2022, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/136828/ccsbrief_phl_en.pdf By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 41
  42. 42. PHILIPPINE HEALTH SITUATION COOPERATION FOR HEALTH WHO supportsthe Government of the Philippines to foster well-being through action by the health sector and across sectors. WHO convenes platforms for health involving multiple stakeholders and in addressing the social, economic and environmental determinants of health. Reference: HEALTH SITUATION. (n.d.). Retrieved August 26, 2022, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/136828/ccsbrief_phl_en.pdf By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 42
  43. 43. PHILIPPINE HEALTH SITUATION COOPERATION FOR HEALTH WHO also takes the lead in coordinating with other health partners to ensure all stakeholders are aware of health issues and activities in the country. Reference: HEALTH SITUATION. (n.d.). Retrieved August 26, 2022, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/136828/ccsbrief_phl_en.pdf By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 43
  44. 44. FUNCTIONS OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGY NURSE 1. Implement public health surveillance 2. Monitor local health personnel conducting disease surveillance 3. Conduct and/or assist other health personnel in outbreak investigation 4. Assist in the conduct of rapid surveys and surveillance during disasters 5. Assist in the conduct of surveys, program evaluations, and other epidemiologic studies 6. Assist in the conduct of training course in epidemiology 7. Assist the epidemiologist in preparing the annual report and financial plan 8. Responsible for inventory and maintenance of epidemiology and surveillance unit (ESU) equipment Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 44
  45. 45. SPECIFIC ROLE OF THE NURSE DURING EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 1. Maintains surveillance of the occurrence of notifiable disease 2. Coordinates with other members of the health team during the disease outbreaks 3. Participates in case findings and collection of laboratory specimens 4. Isolates cases of communicable disease 5. Renders nursing care, teaches and supervises giving of care 6. Performs and teach household members method, concurrent and terminal disinfection 7. Gives health teaching to prevent further spreads of disease to individual and families 8. Follow up cases and contacts 9. Organizes, coordinates and conducts community health education campaign/meetings 10. Refers cases when necessary 11. Coordinates with other concerned community agencies 12. Accomplishes and keeps records and reports and submits to proper office/agency. Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 45
  46. 46. VITAL STATISTICS • STATISTICS refers to a systematic approach of obtaining, organizing and analyzing numerical facts so that conclusion may be drawn from them • VITAL STATISTICS refers to the systematic study of vital events such as births, illnesses, marriages, divorce, separation, and deaths • Statistics of disease (morbidity) and death (mortality) indicate the state of health of a community and the success or failure of health work. • Statistics on population and the characteristics such as age and sex, distribution are obtained from the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) • Births and Deaths are registered in the Office of The Local Civil Registrar of the municipality or city. In cities, births and deaths are registered at the City Health Department. Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 46
  47. 47. USE OF VITAL STATISTICS 1.Indices of the health and illness status of the community 2.Serves as basis for planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating community health nursing programs and services Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 47
  48. 48. SOURCES OF DATA 1.Population Census 2.Registration of vital data 3.Health survey 4.Studies and researches Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 48
  49. 49. HEALTH INDICATORS CRUDE BIRTH RATE - A measure of one characteristic of the natural growth or increase of a population CBR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Total number of live births registered in a given calendar year Estimated population as of July 1 of same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 49
  50. 50. HEALTH INDICATORS CRUDE DEATH RATE - A measure of one mortality from all causes which may result in a decrease of population CDR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Total number of live death registered in a given calendar year Estimated population as of July 1 of same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 50
  51. 51. HEALTH INDICATORS INFANT MORTALITY RATE - Measures the risk of dying during the first year of life IMR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Total number of death under 1 year of age registered in a given calendar year Total number of registered live births of same calendar year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 51
  52. 52. HEALTH INDICATORS MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE - Measures the risk of dying from causes related to pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium MMR = ____________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Total number of deaths from maternal causes registered for a given calendar year Total number of live births registered of same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 52
  53. 53. HEALTH INDICATORS FETAL DEATH RATE - Measures the death of the product of conception prior to its complete expulsion, irrespective of duration of pregnancy FDR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Total number of fetal deaths registered in a given calendar year Total number of live births registered on same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 53
  54. 54. HEALTH INDICATORS NEONATAL DEATH RATE - Measures the risk of dying the 1st month of life NDR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Number of deaths under 28 days of age registered in a given calendar year Number of live births registered on same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 54
  55. 55. HEALTH INDICATORS SPECIFIC DEATH RATE - Describes more accurately the risk of exposure of certain classes or groups to particular diseases SDR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Deaths in specific class/group registered in a given calendar year Estimated population as of July 1 in same specified clas/group of said year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 55
  56. 56. HEALTH INDICATORS Example of SPECIFIC DEATH RATE - Describes more accurately the risk of exposure of certain classes or groups to particular diseases Cause of SDR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Number of deaths from specific cause registered in a given year Estimated population as of July 1 of same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 56
  57. 57. HEALTH INDICATORS Example of SPECIFIC DEATH RATE - Describes more accurately the risk of exposure of certain classes or groups to particular diseases Age SDR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Number of deaths in a particular age group registered in a given calendar year Estimated population as of July 1 in same age group of same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 57
  58. 58. HEALTH INDICATORS Example of SPECIFIC DEATH RATE - Describes more accurately the risk of exposure of certain classes or groups to particular diseases Sex SDR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Number of deaths of a certain sex registered in a given calendar year Estimated population as of July 1 in same for same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 58
  59. 59. HEALTH INDICATORS INCIDENCE RATE - Measures the frequency of occurrence of the phenomenon during a given period of time IR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Number of new cases of a particular disease registered during a specified period of time Estimated population as of July of same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 59
  60. 60. HEALTH INDICATORS PREVALENCE RATE - Measures the proportion of the population which exhibits a particular disease at a particular time PR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Number of new and old of a certain disease registered at a given time Total number of persons examined at same given time By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 60
  61. 61. HEALTH INDICATORS ATTACK RATE - A more accurate measure of the risk of exposure AR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Number of persons acquiring a disease registered in a given year Number of exposed to same disease in the same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 61
  62. 62. HEALTH INDICATORS PROPORTIONATE MORTALITY (Death Ratio) - Shows the numerical relationship between deaths from all causes (or group of causes), age (or group of age), etc. And the total number of deaths from all causes in all ages taken together PM = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Number of registered deaths from specific cause or age for a given calendar year Number of registered deaths from all causes, all ages in same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 62
  63. 63. HEALTH INDICATORS ADJUSTED OR STANDARDIZED RATE - To render the rates of 2 communities comparable, adjustments for the differences in age, sex, race, and any other factors which influence vital events have to be made. METHODS: • By applying observed specific rates to some standard population • By applying specific rates of standard population to corresponding classes or groups of the local population Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 63
  64. 64. HEALTH INDICATORS CASE FATALITY RATION - Index of a killing power of a disease and is influenced by incomplete reporting and poor morbidity data CFR = ______________________________________ Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. X 1000 Number of registered deaths from specific disease for a given year Number of registered cases from same specific disease in same year By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 64
  65. 65. PRESENTATION OF DATA LINE OR CURVED GRAPHS Shows peaks, valleys, and seasonal trends. Also used to show the trends of birth and death rates over a period of time BAR GRAPHS Represents or expresses a quantity in terms of rates or percentages of a particular observation like causes of illness and deaths AREA DIAGRAM (Pie Charts) It shows the relative importance of parts to the whole Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 65
  66. 66. FUNCTIONS OF THE NURSE • Collects data • Tabulates data • Analyzes and interprets data • Evaluates data • Recommends redirection and /or strengthening of specific areas of health programs as needed Reference: National League of Philippine Government Nurses. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines (10th ed.). National League of Philippine Government Nurses. By: Rommel Luis C Israel III 66

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