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Ms. Roma Gandhi
Dr. BMN College of Home Science
NAAC Accredited ‘A’ Grade CGPA
UGC Status: College for Potential of
This is one of the most important elements, which
brings life, beauty (aesthetics), mood, emotion
and character to the design.
What is colour?
It is a sensation, which causes stimulation of the
Colour can make a room appear bright or sober,
exciting or dull, spacious or crowded, warm or
Optical instrument called as Spectroscope. At
one end of the spectrum is violet and at the
other end it is red. The whole band is called as
VIBGYOR ie Violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow,
orange and red.
The study of color can be approached in 5
5.Who mix paints and dyes and find that the
mixtures of colored pigments behave differently.
They are called primary colours because we
cannot get them by mixing other colours.
They occur in either natural or man – made
Red, Yellow & Blue are called primary colours
When two primary colours are added in equal
proportion a secondary colour is obtained.
½ Yellow + ½ Red = Orange
½ Red + ½ Blue = Violet (Purple)
½ Blue + ½ Yellow = Green
When one primary color and
its adjacent secondary color
are mixed in equal proportion,
we get an intermediate color.
Yellow + Green =
Red + Orange = Reddish
Blue + Purple = Bluish Purple
When two secondary colours are mixed in
equal proportions, tertiary colours are
Orange + Green = Citron (Yellowish gray)
When two tertiary colours are mixed in
equal proportions, they form quarter nary
DIMENSIONS OF COLOURS
1. HUE: it is a term used to indicate the name of
the color such red, blue, yellow etc.
• The difference between blue and green is the
• It indicates the position of the color on the
• It also indicates the warmthness and
coolness of a color.
2. Value: it is the second dimension of color.
• It indicates the lightest light (white) and the
darkest dark color (black)
Eg: red can become light pink or dark maroon.
• Dr. D.W.Ross gave 9 steps of value where
white is a highest value and black is the lowest
value. Half way between black and white
becomes middle value on the chart that is
White, Highlight, light, low light, MIDDLE VALUE, high dark,
dark, low dark, black
3. Intensity or Chroma: it is the dimension which
tells us the brightness and dullness, strength
and weakness of a color.
• In other words it is a property describing the
distance of the color from grey or neutralizing.
CLASSIFICATION OF COLOURS
• Warmthness or coolness
• Heaviness or lightness
• Advancing or Receding
• Earth or Acid colors
LAW OF COLOURS
Help to understand how to choose
RELATED COLOUR SCHEMES
• Monochromatic: Only one colour
is used, Ideally Primary or
• Analogous: Any two which are
next to each other in colour
CONTRAST COLOUR SCHEMES
• Complementary: 2 Colors
directly opposite e.g. Red &
• Double Complimentary: 4
Colors in double, ( 2 colors next
to each other & their opposite in
Col Wheel, Red, RP & Green YG)
• Split Complimentary: 3 colors,
Forms “Y” on color wheel e.g
Red, BG, YG
• Double Split: 4 colors,
Forms “X” ( Purple, Red,
• Triad: 3 colors, Forms
Triangle ( Primary triangle/
Secondary Triangle/ Any
one Inter Triangle)
• Tetrad: 4 colors , Forms
Rectangle ( 1 primary, 1
secondary & 2