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2 f2015 James I

James I and the lifestyle of the common people: housing, religion and urban problems

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2 f2015 James I

  1. 1. James I, Part II Problems The Commoners Prospects and Problems Favorites Foreign relations Religion Finance − Parliament Professor Bucholz PPT
  2. 2. James VI & I: Sexuality -James vigorously denounced sodomy -Displays of affection between men must be looked at according to conventions of the day +In 1582 the excessive affection between 13 year old James and Esmé Stuart was noted +The report of embarrassing behavior described by Professor Bucholz -This report was written during the Civil War when anti-Stuart propaganda was rife
  3. 3. James VI & I: Sexuality +The French ambassador, Count Leveneur de Tillières, described James’s life as “filthy,” “scandalous,” and “abominable.” -The French were anti-James because of his overtures to Spain +Anonymous writings referred to James and Buckingham as Jupiter and Ganymede
  4. 4. James VI & I: Sexuality -George Villiers (Buckingham) Villiers was introduced to James by Anne and by George Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury.
  5. 5. Sherborne Castle
  6. 6. The Commoners • Mostly rural – Mostly farm labor – 2/3 own only their cottage and garden plot • Urban 8% in London and towns over 5,000 – Mostly servants – Opportunity for craftsmen
  7. 7. Housing Yeoman/ husbandman Farm Laborer Heating Fireplace Open hearth Ventilation Glass windows Oiled linen windows Main room Ceiling Open hall Sleeping Separate bedroom Multi-purpose room; loft Furnishings Feather beds Sheets Furniture Chairs, some joined work Chest, table, form, Bible box Tableware Pewter; some silver Wooden trenchers, spoons Books Bible perhaps
  8. 8. Alcock, N. W., and Robert Bearman. "Discovering Mary Arden's House: Property and Society in Wilmcote, Warwickshire." Shakespeare Quarterly 53.1 (2002): 53-82 Glebe Farm, reconstruction Mary Arden’s House
  9. 9. Farmhouse, 1609
  10. 10. 17th Century style trencher, V&A
  11. 11. Urban conditions • Rise of crowded suburbs • Poor sanitation • Rapid spread of disease • Poor laws to help deserving poor have been initiated; financed by parishes using workhouses
  12. 12. Urban area housing (London)
  13. 13. Infant mortality • Suburban and part rural Clerkenwell and Aldgate 270-280/1000 births • City of London, Cheapside 150/1000 births
  14. 14. Some trends and figures for 1600 • Real wages have fallen by about a third during the reign of Elizabeth • 20% of women never marry; mean age of first female marriage ~25.5 (legal age, 12) • Average family size is over 5 and population is increasing • Life expectancy at birth was a little over 35
  15. 15. Religion
  16. 16. Puritan Moderates under Elizabeth • Ceremony: Emphasized sermons (the preaching of God's word) – Disapproved of clerical vestments, traditional ceremonies, and stress on the the sacraments as remnants of popish superstition • (In)Toleration: extremely anti-papist • Theology: Centered on the doctrine of predestination • The populace: Strict observation of the Lord's Day (sabbatarianism).
  17. 17. James I and Puritans • George Abbott, Archbishop of Canterbury (1611-33) • Reintroduce bishops in Scotland as chairs of presbyteries • Calvinist • Otherwise general toleration • Puritans remain within the Church of England
  18. 18. Flavors of Puritans • Ecclesiastical – opponents of ceremonies derived from Catholicism: Church practice • Religious – Strict Calvinist • Moral – Strict precisians in conduct • Political – Resistant to dogmatism, Catholics and conformists: Church structure • Moderate and extremist
  19. 19. Puritans and James I • 1617 Book of Sports – archery, dancing, "leaping, vaulting, or any other such harmless recreation” permitted on Sundays – Bull and bear baiting, interludes and ‘common plays’ forbidden • 1618 Articles of Perth imposed some English practices on Scotland • 1623 Proposed Spanish match for Charles
  20. 20. Separatists Rejected reform within the Church of England Congregationalist organization Gainsborough Scrooby Manor (Brownists) Amsterdam Leiden Adopt adult baptism Some return to England Move to Plymouth, MA
  21. 21. James I Expenditures 1606 Crown debt £735,000 – 1603 Royal Clothing £10,000 – 1610 “ “ £36,000 – 1607 Debts of three favorites £44,000 – Allowance for Prince Henry £25,000 1608 Debt £1,400,000
  22. 22. Financing the Royal Extravagance • 1606 Impositions – Duties on trade on top of the customs duties – Put into place in 1608. ~£70,000 a year.
  23. 23. 1610 The Great Contract • Allow James to pay off all royal debt. • Allow James to live in the manner that befitted a king of England. – Royal debt £300,000; – For Royal Navy £150,000 – Contingency fund £150,000 – For a suitable lifestyle £200,000 (later asked for £240,000)
  24. 24. Concessions • James would give up feudal rights except wardships – Would add wardships for another £200,000; Commons offered £100,000 • Ask MPs to go back to their constituencies for their opinions – Came back with concern about impositions
  25. 25. Customs ‘Farming’ • Lease out the administration of Custom fees in return for an annual rent. • Participants earn a profit. • Crown uses this as a current account. • Raise £112,400/year