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  1. 1. Presented by : Ar.Shruti Indian Temple Architecture
  2. 2. •  A  notable  feature  of  these  temples  is  the   wider  intercolumnina5on  of  the  pillars  in  the   middle  than  on  the  sides.  As  suggested  by   the  flat  roof,  square  or  rectangular  form  the   plain  treatment  of  the  walls  and  modestness   of  size,  these  temples  must  obviously  have   been  derived  from  rock-­‐cut  proto-­‐types  of   which  early  Gupta  examples  occur  at  Udaigiri   near  Sanchi.  
  3. 3. History  of  India  
  4. 4. Indus valley civilizations Buddhist influence Hindu temples Islamic influence Mughal empire History of India
  5. 5. Temple Architecture*
  6. 6. Gupta Period (320 AD – 480 AD)•  After the decline of Mauryans, Gupta rulers rose to power •  The Gupta period in Indian history is known as the Golden Age of India. •  Era of the most advanced civilization, flush with wealth, higher education, trade with foreign countries, and an overall happy life. •  Religious tolerance and freedom of worship •  Period of Hindu renaissance. •  Emperor Ashoka promoted Buddhism, but Gupta rulers showed a preference for Hindu religion •  Music, architecture, sculptures and painting were at its best. •  Various copper statues images of Buddha reflect the craftsmanship of the Gupta period. •  After the death of the last Gupta ruler in 570 AD, the Gupta empire declined and broke off.
  7. 7. Extensive Trade 4c spices gold & ivory gold & ivory rice & wheathorses cotton goods cotton goods
  8. 8. Medicine Literature Mathematics Astronomy Printed medicinal guides 1000 diseases classified Plastic Surgery C-sections performed Inoculations 500 healing plants identified Decimal System Concept of Zero PI = 3.1416 Kalidasa Solar Calendar The earth is round Gupta India Gupta Achievements
  9. 9. Principal architectural features of a temple VIMANA MANDAPA SHIKHARA garbha-griha
  10. 10. Mini Shikhara repeating themselves Dravida (south) 2 types make up the Indian temple 'orders Indo-Aryan (north)Sculpture on a mass scale Little structural inventiveness or technical ingenuity Structure to stand-piling of massive blocks one on top of the other ensured stability without using mortar Fine appreciation of mass & value & effects of shadow to a marked degree
  11. 11. Reduced in appearance to a fortress Raise the gates of the fortress to the level of architecture Gopurams-entrance gateways of the temple cities of the south Makeshift battlements around their cities, towns-the temples
  12. 12. Gopurams Importance of the temple within the city precincts without in altering the form of the temple Natural population increase Erect yet another wall around the existing one City grew much like the annular rings of a tree Great temple of Srirangam at Tiruchirapalli Rectangle dynamic form Towering, massive & impressive Buddhist origin
  13. 13. Gopuram
  14. 14. Buddhist and Hindu Temples during the Mauryan and Gupta Periods HinduTemples •  During the Mauryan period, temples were small, stone structures with one or two rooms and flat roofs. •  During the Gupta period, the temples were more complex, with huge towers and intricate carvings. BuddhistTemples •  Some Buddhists carved entire temples out of mountainsides. •  The temples at Ajanta and Ellora are two of the most famous of this type of Buddhist temple. •  Another type of Buddhist temple was the stupa.