Disaster Management

Rajive Kohli
Rajive KohliEducation Security Disaster Management
Col. Rajive Kohli, Ph.D.
06 January 2016
9910744340 kohli9r@gmail.com
DISASTER
DISASTER alphabetically means-
D – Destructions
I – Incidents
S – Sufferings
A – Administrative
S – Sentiments
T – Tragedies
E – Eruption of Communicable Diseases
R – Research Programme & its Implementation
I. CHARACTER. Honesty, integrity, truth, health,
helpful, kindness, well wisher, positive, being good,
cooperative, constructive, moral, ethical, honorable,
upright, fair, sincere, humble, virtuous,
II. HARDWORK. Action, active, doing, proactive,
industrious, zeal, laborious, conscientious, diligent,
persevere, perform, change agent,
III.KNOWLEDGE. Learning, awareness, reading, study,
information, understanding, comprehension, education,
expertise, grasp, facts, insight, grasp, observation,
scholarship, theory, proficiency
Disaster Management
Disaster Management
DEFINATION
“a sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes
great damage or loss of life” (Oxford dictionary)
“a catastrophic, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in
any area, arising from natural or man-made cause, or
by accident or negligence which results in substantial
loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and
destruction of property, or damage to, or degradation
of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude
as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community
of the affected area” (Disaster Management Act 2005)
DISASTER dimensions
– Disruption to normal pattern of life, usually
severe and may also be sudden, unexpected
and widespread
– Human effects like loss of life, injury, hardship
and adverse effect on health
– Effect on social infrastructure such as
destruction of or damage to government
systems, buildings, communications and
essential services
– Community needs such shelter, food,
clothing, medical assistance and social care.
Impact of Disasters
• Direct effects include deaths, injuries and
physical damage.
• Secondary disaster impacts such as releasing
fire or hazardous material that is triggered by
disasters.
• Indirect impacts include the ripple effect
resulting from the flow of goods, services,
unemployment etc.
GENERAL EFFECTS OF DISASTER
 LOSS OF LIFE.
 INJURY, ILLNESS, DISEASE
 DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PROPERTY.
 DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PRODUCTION.
 DISRUPTION OF LIFESTYLE.
 LOSS OF LIVELIHOOD.
 DISRUPTION TO ESSENTIAL SERVICES.
 DAMAGE TO NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE.
 DISRUPTION TO GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEMS.
 NATIONAL ECONOMIC LOSS.
 SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL AFTER
EFFECT.
 ENVIRONMENTAL DISRUPTION
CHARACTERISTICOF DISASTER
Distinction between
Hazard and Disaster :
“A hazard is a natural event while the disaster
is its consequence. A hazard is a perceived
natural event which threatens both life and
property….a disaster is a realization of this
hazard…”
– John Whittow, Disaster. 1980
Disaster Management
COMPONENTS OF DISASTER
Risk is a measure of the expected losses due to a hazardous event of a
particular magnitude .The level of risk depends on:
• Nature of the Hazard
• Vulnerability of the elements which are affected
• Economic value of those elements
Vulnerability is the extent to which a community, structure, service,
and/or geographic area is likely to be damaged
Hazards are Phenomena that pose a threat to people, structures, or
economic assets and which may cause a disaster.
The extent of damage in a disaster depends on:
• The impact, intensity and characteristics of the phenomenon
• How people, environment and infrastructures are affected by that
phenomenon
This relationship can be written as an equation:
• DISASTER RISK = HAZARD + VULNERABILITY
Disasters occur in varied forms
•Some are predictable in advance
•Some are annual or seasonal
•Some are sudden and unpredictable
Floods Days and weeks
Earthquakes Seconds/minutes
Cyclones Days
Droughts Months
Disaster Management
Meteorological
Disasters
• Floods
• Tsunami
• Cyclone
• Hurricane
• Typhoon
• Snow storm
• Blizzard
• Hail storm
Topographical
Disasters
• Earthquake
• Volcanic
Eruptions
• Landslides
and
Avalanches
• Asteroids
• Limnic
eruptions
Environmental
Disasters
• Global
warming
• El Niño-
Southern
Oscillation
• Ozone
depletion-
UVB
Radiation
• Solar flare
16
NATURAL DISASTER
• A natural disaster is a consequence when a
natural calamity affects humans and/or the
built environment.
• Various disasters like earthquake, landslides,
volcanic eruptions, flood and cyclones are
natural hazards
WHY? And WHAT about
Man made Disasters?
Manmade Disasters
• Urban fires
• Village fire
• Mine fires
• Air, road and rail accidents
• Boat capsizing
• Electrical disasters
• Chemical and industrial
disasters
• Nuclear disasters
• Mine flooding
• Oil spill
• Major building collapse
• Serial bomb blasts
• Festival related disasters
 civil strife
 communal violence
 internal conflict,
 “complex emergencies”
 rapid or slow onset
types
COMPLEX DISASTERS
urbanisation chaotic growth
policy disasters
war and civil strife
Social violence
Technological
• Transport
failure
• Public place
failure
• Fire
Industrial
• Chemical
spills
• Radioactive
spills
Warfare
• War
• Terrorism
• Internal
conflicts
• Civil unrest
• CBRNE
20
THESE ARE THE TIMES WHEN
EVERYONE HAS TO HELP OUT
Disaster Management
I. Water and Climate related Hazards
• Floods and Drainage Management
• Cyclones
• Tornadoes and Hurricanes
• Hailstorm
• Cloud Burst
• Heat Wave and Cold Wave
• Snow Avalanches
• Droughts
• Sea Erosion
• Thunder & Lightning
• Tsunami
Disaster Management
Disaster Management
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
The body of policy and administration decisions
and operational activities that pertain to various
stages of a disaster at all levels.
An applied science which seek, by systematic
observation and analysis of disasters, to improve
measures relating to prevention, mitigation,
preparedness, emergency response and recovery.
Encompass all aspects of planning for and
responding to disasters, including both pre and post
disaster activities.
A CONTINUOUS AND INTEGRATED PROCESS OF PLANNING, ORGANISING,
COORDINATING AND IMPLEMENTING MEASURES WHICH ARE NECESSARY
OR EXPEDIENT FOR:
(i) Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster;
(ii) Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or
consequences;
(iii) Capacity-building;
(iv) Preparedness to deal with any disaster;
(v) Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster;
(vi) Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster;
evacuation, rescue and relief;
(vii) Rehabilitation and reconstruction;
(Disaster Management Act, 2005)
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
• Prevention
• Mitigation
• Preparedness
• Response
• Rehabilitation
• Reconstruction
Six elements that defines the complete approach to
Disaster Management.
Disaster Management
PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
1. DM is the responsibility of all spheres of government.
2. DM should use resources that exist for a day-to-day purpose.
3. Organizations should function as an extension of their core business.
4. Individuals are responsible for their own safety.
5. DM planning should focus on large-scale events.
6. DM planning should recognize the difference between incidents and
disasters.
7. DM operational arrangements are additional to and do not replace
incident management operational arrangements.
8. DM planning must take account of the type of physical environment
and the structure of the population.
9. DM arrangements must recognise the involvement and potential role of
non- government agencies.
Integrated
Disaster
Management
Prepared-
ness
Response
Recovery
Mitigation
Activities prior to a disaster
• Preparedness plans
• Emergency exercises
• Training,
• Warning systems
Activities that reduce
effects of disasters
• Building codes &
zoning
• Vulnerability
analyses
• Public education
Activities following a
disaster.
• Temporary housing
• Claims processing
• Grants
• Medical care
Activities during a
disaster.
• Public warning
systems
• Emergency
operations
• Search & rescue
PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Disaster Preparedness
Disaster impact
Disaster Response
Rehabilitation
Disaster Mitigation
Disaster Preparedness
• It involves measures to ensure that
communities and services are
capable of coping with the effect of
disaster.
Disaster preparedness
Preparedness should be in the form of
money, manpower and materials
 Evaluation from past experiences about risk
 Location of disaster prone areas
 Organization of communication, information
and warning system
 Ensuring co-ordination and response
mechanisms
 Development of public education programme
 Co-ordination with media
 National & international relations
 Keeping stock of foods, drug and other
essential commodities.
PREPAREDNESS
• Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping to include
Resources.
• Assess strengthening requirements and execute.
• Funding for preparedness must be arranged.
• Peoples’ cooperation through Political leaders,
elders, Volunteers and NGOs
• Create lead time by interpreting Warnings
• Plan to include movement of resources with time
frame.
• Aim to reduce the destructive potential of
disasters, timely & appropriate relief to victims
and quick & durable recovery
Disaster Preparedness
Framework
RehearsalsPublic
Education
and Training
Response
Mechanisms
Warning
Systems
Resource
Base
Information
System
Institutional
Framework
PlanningVulnerability
Assessment
COMPONENTS OF PREPAREDNESS
Disaster impact
Disaster Response
It involves measures taken in
anticipation of, during and immediately
after a disaster to ensure that the
effects are minimized.
• Epidemiologic surveillance
and disease control
• Vaccination
• Nutrition
Disaster Response Activities
 Warning
 Evacuation/Mitigation
 Search and Rescue
 Assessment
 Emergency Relief
 Logistics and Supply
 Communication and information Management
 Survivor Response and coping
 Security
 EOC & coordination
 Expedite rehabilitation and reconstruction.
EXAMPLE OF DISASTER RESPONSE
1. Implementing the disaster
management plan
2. Setting up medical camps
and mobilizing resources
3. Providing adequate
shelter and sanitary
facilities
4. Deployment of search and
rescue team
Disaster relief
This is a coordinated multi-agency response to
reduce the impact of a disaster and its long-term
results. Relief activities include
 Rescue, Relocation
Providing food and water
Preventing disease and disability
 Repairing vital services such as
telecommunications and transport
 Providing temporary shelter and emergency
health care
Disaster recovery
Recovery activities include
Rebuilding infrastructure
 Health care
Rehabilitation
These should blend with development activities, such as
building human resources for health and developing policies
and practices to avoid similar situations in future.
It involves measures, which support
emergency affected areas in reconstruction
of the physical infrastructure and restoration
of economic and emotional well being.
EXAMPLE FOR DISASTER
RECOVERY
1. Counseling programme
for those who lost the
near ones
2. Restoring services like
roads, communication link
3. Providing financial
support employment
4. Reconstructing damaged
buildings
Rehabilitation phase
• Water supply
• Food safety
• Basic sanitation and
personal hygiene
• Vector control
Disaster mitigation
This involves lessening the likely effects of emergencies. These include,
depending upon the disaster, protection of vulnerable population and
structure.
For examples:
• Improving structural qualities of schools, houses and such other
buildings so that medical causalities can be minimized.
• Similarly ensuring the safety of health facilities and public health
services including water supply and sewerage system to reduce the cost
of rehabilitation and reconstruction.
The mitigation phase differs from the other phases because it focuses on
long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk.
This mitigation compliments the disaster preparedness and disaster
response activities.
Prevention and Mitigation
It involves measures to eliminate or reduce the
incidence of severity of disasters.
EXAMPLES
1. Preventing
habitation in risk
zones
2. Disaster resistant
buildings
4. ROLE OF COLLEGES IN
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Major areas of concern are:
• Inclusion of disaster management in
Curriculum
• Disaster management, awareness and
preparedness in institutions.
• Safety of institutions from natural hazards –
structural and non structural.
• Preparation of the Disaster Management
Plans at institutions level
What is a safe institution?
• Either located in a
hazard free area, or
one that has been
constructed to
withstand the hazard
to which it is exposed.
• will not collapse or
get affected if a
disaster happens.
Government of India initiatives:
1) Inclusion of disaster management in education
curriculum:
2) Disaster management - awareness and
preparedness in collages.
3) Preparation of collage DM plans
Disaster Management NOT a
subject but…………..
A NECESSARY LIFE SKILL
Steps for preparation of DM Plans
1. Sensitisation meeting for awareness Teachers, College Management and
students.
2. Formation of College Disaster Management Committee
• Collage principal
• Vice principal
• Sub Divisional Magistrate of the area
• Education Officer
• President of Parents Teachers Association
• Parents (1-2)
• Local Medical Officer
• Market trader association
• Fire Officer
• Police
• Members of Civil Society (NCC,NSS, Red Cross, Scouts and
Guides)
• 4 Students
Steps for preparation of DM Plans (cont…)
3. Hazard identification
• History of disasters
• Identification of potential hazard
• Preparation of seasonality calendar
4. Inventory of resources
5. Mapping
• Social Mapping
• Resource Mapping
• Vulnerability / Risk Mapping
• Safe and Opportunity Mapping
• Class rooms in the collage building
• Laboratories
• Play Ground
• Collage Canteen
• Library
Social Mapping - collages
• Human resources
• Collage Buses
• Generators
• Fire extinguishers
• Stretchers
• Drinking water sources
• Health Centre in the collage
Resource Map - collages
• Junior students
• Physically challenged
• Identification of potentially vulnerable areas in the collage
Vulnerability/ Risk Map - collage
• Identification of safe places in the collage
• Alternative staircases/ routes to be
identified
Safe and Alternate route Mapping
Collage DM Teams
Early Warning Team
Collage teacher
Student (3 nos. most
communicative)
Activity/ Event
Organising Team
Disaster management
teacher
Art and Craft teacher
Music teacher
Prefects/ active students
Search and Rescue
Sports teachers
Male teacher
Prefect (students 2nos)
Evacuation
Fire safety
Teachers (2 numbers)
Students (4 numbers)
Site security team
Collage security staff
Teacher (1 numbers)
Students (2 numbers)
First Aid team
Resident doctor of the
collage/medical consultant
Teachers 2 nos.
Students 2 numbers
7. Training of Collage Disaster Management
Teams
 Search and Rescue
First Aid
Trauma Counseling
Fire fighting
8. Planning to be disseminated to everyone
in the collage.
9. Mock Drill
 Drills to be carried out twice a year
 Drills should be hazard specific
A disaster drill is an
exercise in which
people simulate the
circumstances of a
disaster so that they
have an opportunity
to practice their
responses.
10. Plan Updation
 Plans to be updated every six months
 Plan to be approved by the Disaster
Management Committee
Collage DM Plan
Disaster Management
Safety of Collage buildings
• Focus on structural and non-structural safety.
Making collages
Safer Before the
Next Disaster
Strikes
A glance into this side
street reveals a vast
amount of fallen
façade materials.
Rescue work, fire
trucks access, etc. is
seriously hampered.
Non - structural safety
Because books represent a
considerable mass, strong
anchorage and bracing of the
shelves in both main directions is
necessary
Act as a safe shelter.
Health centre for the locality.
Disaster management Information centre where data base
could be maintained on population, health, institutions etc.
A centre for learning and counselling.
The collage can be feeding centre.
Training for DRM volunteers, Village Council members,
Teachers, Government officials at the Sub-Division level.
The educational Institution can act as follows:
ROLE OF TEACHER
Awareness should be generated by teacher on different types of
hazards and the preparedness measures to be taken to combat these
disasters.
Prepare a contingency plan for the collage in case of a fire, cyclone
earthquakes and floods.
 students should be told about primary escape route in the collage
Train the students on First Aid and Rescue operations.
Carry out mock drill in the collage at least twice a year.
Initiate the process of plantation in the collage and giving knowledge
on the type of trees to be grown.
Generate awareness on water and sanitation among the students.
The student should be demonstrated the actions to be taken when
trapped in a fire.
ROLE OF STUDENT IN DM
.
CONCLUSION
Enthusiasm in disaster preparedness generally fades
once an emergency phase is past, collages offer a
good entry point for keeping communities alert and
making disaster risk management more sustainable.
Highly-educated teachers, community leaders,
students and their parents can all play an important
role in disseminating knowledge and keeping
their communities well-prepared.
Teachers & Youth as responsible citizens of
our country should be a part and parcel of
the disaster preparedness drive taken up in
the country
The Myths about Disasters
• It Can’t Happen to Us.
• The Nature’s forces are so Deadly the
Victims will Die anyway.
• There is Nothing We Can Do.
Disasters:
Negative and Positive Aspects
Aspects Negative Aspects Positive aspects
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R
Damage
Interruption
Severe
Antagonistic
Scourge
Traumatic
Emergency
Risk
Development
Innovation
Sharing
Awareness
Self sufficiency
Transformation
Education
Resilience
Disaster Management
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Disaster Management

  • 1. Col. Rajive Kohli, Ph.D. 06 January 2016 9910744340 kohli9r@gmail.com
  • 2. DISASTER DISASTER alphabetically means- D – Destructions I – Incidents S – Sufferings A – Administrative S – Sentiments T – Tragedies E – Eruption of Communicable Diseases R – Research Programme & its Implementation
  • 3. I. CHARACTER. Honesty, integrity, truth, health, helpful, kindness, well wisher, positive, being good, cooperative, constructive, moral, ethical, honorable, upright, fair, sincere, humble, virtuous, II. HARDWORK. Action, active, doing, proactive, industrious, zeal, laborious, conscientious, diligent, persevere, perform, change agent, III.KNOWLEDGE. Learning, awareness, reading, study, information, understanding, comprehension, education, expertise, grasp, facts, insight, grasp, observation, scholarship, theory, proficiency
  • 6. DEFINATION “a sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss of life” (Oxford dictionary) “a catastrophic, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man-made cause, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area” (Disaster Management Act 2005)
  • 7. DISASTER dimensions – Disruption to normal pattern of life, usually severe and may also be sudden, unexpected and widespread – Human effects like loss of life, injury, hardship and adverse effect on health – Effect on social infrastructure such as destruction of or damage to government systems, buildings, communications and essential services – Community needs such shelter, food, clothing, medical assistance and social care.
  • 8. Impact of Disasters • Direct effects include deaths, injuries and physical damage. • Secondary disaster impacts such as releasing fire or hazardous material that is triggered by disasters. • Indirect impacts include the ripple effect resulting from the flow of goods, services, unemployment etc.
  • 9. GENERAL EFFECTS OF DISASTER  LOSS OF LIFE.  INJURY, ILLNESS, DISEASE  DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PROPERTY.  DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PRODUCTION.  DISRUPTION OF LIFESTYLE.  LOSS OF LIVELIHOOD.  DISRUPTION TO ESSENTIAL SERVICES.  DAMAGE TO NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE.  DISRUPTION TO GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEMS.  NATIONAL ECONOMIC LOSS.  SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL AFTER EFFECT.  ENVIRONMENTAL DISRUPTION
  • 11. Distinction between Hazard and Disaster : “A hazard is a natural event while the disaster is its consequence. A hazard is a perceived natural event which threatens both life and property….a disaster is a realization of this hazard…” – John Whittow, Disaster. 1980
  • 13. COMPONENTS OF DISASTER Risk is a measure of the expected losses due to a hazardous event of a particular magnitude .The level of risk depends on: • Nature of the Hazard • Vulnerability of the elements which are affected • Economic value of those elements Vulnerability is the extent to which a community, structure, service, and/or geographic area is likely to be damaged Hazards are Phenomena that pose a threat to people, structures, or economic assets and which may cause a disaster. The extent of damage in a disaster depends on: • The impact, intensity and characteristics of the phenomenon • How people, environment and infrastructures are affected by that phenomenon This relationship can be written as an equation: • DISASTER RISK = HAZARD + VULNERABILITY
  • 14. Disasters occur in varied forms •Some are predictable in advance •Some are annual or seasonal •Some are sudden and unpredictable Floods Days and weeks Earthquakes Seconds/minutes Cyclones Days Droughts Months
  • 16. Meteorological Disasters • Floods • Tsunami • Cyclone • Hurricane • Typhoon • Snow storm • Blizzard • Hail storm Topographical Disasters • Earthquake • Volcanic Eruptions • Landslides and Avalanches • Asteroids • Limnic eruptions Environmental Disasters • Global warming • El Niño- Southern Oscillation • Ozone depletion- UVB Radiation • Solar flare 16
  • 17. NATURAL DISASTER • A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural calamity affects humans and/or the built environment. • Various disasters like earthquake, landslides, volcanic eruptions, flood and cyclones are natural hazards
  • 18. WHY? And WHAT about Man made Disasters?
  • 19. Manmade Disasters • Urban fires • Village fire • Mine fires • Air, road and rail accidents • Boat capsizing • Electrical disasters • Chemical and industrial disasters • Nuclear disasters • Mine flooding • Oil spill • Major building collapse • Serial bomb blasts • Festival related disasters  civil strife  communal violence  internal conflict,  “complex emergencies”  rapid or slow onset types COMPLEX DISASTERS urbanisation chaotic growth policy disasters war and civil strife Social violence
  • 20. Technological • Transport failure • Public place failure • Fire Industrial • Chemical spills • Radioactive spills Warfare • War • Terrorism • Internal conflicts • Civil unrest • CBRNE 20
  • 21. THESE ARE THE TIMES WHEN EVERYONE HAS TO HELP OUT
  • 23. I. Water and Climate related Hazards • Floods and Drainage Management • Cyclones • Tornadoes and Hurricanes • Hailstorm • Cloud Burst • Heat Wave and Cold Wave • Snow Avalanches • Droughts • Sea Erosion • Thunder & Lightning • Tsunami
  • 26. DISASTER MANAGEMENT The body of policy and administration decisions and operational activities that pertain to various stages of a disaster at all levels. An applied science which seek, by systematic observation and analysis of disasters, to improve measures relating to prevention, mitigation, preparedness, emergency response and recovery. Encompass all aspects of planning for and responding to disasters, including both pre and post disaster activities.
  • 27. A CONTINUOUS AND INTEGRATED PROCESS OF PLANNING, ORGANISING, COORDINATING AND IMPLEMENTING MEASURES WHICH ARE NECESSARY OR EXPEDIENT FOR: (i) Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster; (ii) Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences; (iii) Capacity-building; (iv) Preparedness to deal with any disaster; (v) Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster; (vi) Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster; evacuation, rescue and relief; (vii) Rehabilitation and reconstruction; (Disaster Management Act, 2005)
  • 29. • Prevention • Mitigation • Preparedness • Response • Rehabilitation • Reconstruction Six elements that defines the complete approach to Disaster Management.
  • 31. PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT 1. DM is the responsibility of all spheres of government. 2. DM should use resources that exist for a day-to-day purpose. 3. Organizations should function as an extension of their core business. 4. Individuals are responsible for their own safety. 5. DM planning should focus on large-scale events. 6. DM planning should recognize the difference between incidents and disasters. 7. DM operational arrangements are additional to and do not replace incident management operational arrangements. 8. DM planning must take account of the type of physical environment and the structure of the population. 9. DM arrangements must recognise the involvement and potential role of non- government agencies.
  • 32. Integrated Disaster Management Prepared- ness Response Recovery Mitigation Activities prior to a disaster • Preparedness plans • Emergency exercises • Training, • Warning systems Activities that reduce effects of disasters • Building codes & zoning • Vulnerability analyses • Public education Activities following a disaster. • Temporary housing • Claims processing • Grants • Medical care Activities during a disaster. • Public warning systems • Emergency operations • Search & rescue
  • 33. PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disaster Preparedness Disaster impact Disaster Response Rehabilitation Disaster Mitigation
  • 34. Disaster Preparedness • It involves measures to ensure that communities and services are capable of coping with the effect of disaster.
  • 35. Disaster preparedness Preparedness should be in the form of money, manpower and materials  Evaluation from past experiences about risk  Location of disaster prone areas  Organization of communication, information and warning system  Ensuring co-ordination and response mechanisms  Development of public education programme  Co-ordination with media  National & international relations  Keeping stock of foods, drug and other essential commodities.
  • 36. PREPAREDNESS • Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping to include Resources. • Assess strengthening requirements and execute. • Funding for preparedness must be arranged. • Peoples’ cooperation through Political leaders, elders, Volunteers and NGOs • Create lead time by interpreting Warnings • Plan to include movement of resources with time frame. • Aim to reduce the destructive potential of disasters, timely & appropriate relief to victims and quick & durable recovery
  • 39. Disaster Response It involves measures taken in anticipation of, during and immediately after a disaster to ensure that the effects are minimized. • Epidemiologic surveillance and disease control • Vaccination • Nutrition
  • 40. Disaster Response Activities  Warning  Evacuation/Mitigation  Search and Rescue  Assessment  Emergency Relief  Logistics and Supply  Communication and information Management  Survivor Response and coping  Security  EOC & coordination  Expedite rehabilitation and reconstruction.
  • 41. EXAMPLE OF DISASTER RESPONSE 1. Implementing the disaster management plan 2. Setting up medical camps and mobilizing resources 3. Providing adequate shelter and sanitary facilities 4. Deployment of search and rescue team
  • 42. Disaster relief This is a coordinated multi-agency response to reduce the impact of a disaster and its long-term results. Relief activities include  Rescue, Relocation Providing food and water Preventing disease and disability  Repairing vital services such as telecommunications and transport  Providing temporary shelter and emergency health care
  • 43. Disaster recovery Recovery activities include Rebuilding infrastructure  Health care Rehabilitation These should blend with development activities, such as building human resources for health and developing policies and practices to avoid similar situations in future. It involves measures, which support emergency affected areas in reconstruction of the physical infrastructure and restoration of economic and emotional well being.
  • 44. EXAMPLE FOR DISASTER RECOVERY 1. Counseling programme for those who lost the near ones 2. Restoring services like roads, communication link 3. Providing financial support employment 4. Reconstructing damaged buildings
  • 45. Rehabilitation phase • Water supply • Food safety • Basic sanitation and personal hygiene • Vector control
  • 46. Disaster mitigation This involves lessening the likely effects of emergencies. These include, depending upon the disaster, protection of vulnerable population and structure. For examples: • Improving structural qualities of schools, houses and such other buildings so that medical causalities can be minimized. • Similarly ensuring the safety of health facilities and public health services including water supply and sewerage system to reduce the cost of rehabilitation and reconstruction. The mitigation phase differs from the other phases because it focuses on long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk. This mitigation compliments the disaster preparedness and disaster response activities.
  • 47. Prevention and Mitigation It involves measures to eliminate or reduce the incidence of severity of disasters. EXAMPLES 1. Preventing habitation in risk zones 2. Disaster resistant buildings
  • 48. 4. ROLE OF COLLEGES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
  • 49. Major areas of concern are: • Inclusion of disaster management in Curriculum • Disaster management, awareness and preparedness in institutions. • Safety of institutions from natural hazards – structural and non structural. • Preparation of the Disaster Management Plans at institutions level
  • 50. What is a safe institution? • Either located in a hazard free area, or one that has been constructed to withstand the hazard to which it is exposed. • will not collapse or get affected if a disaster happens.
  • 51. Government of India initiatives: 1) Inclusion of disaster management in education curriculum: 2) Disaster management - awareness and preparedness in collages. 3) Preparation of collage DM plans Disaster Management NOT a subject but………….. A NECESSARY LIFE SKILL
  • 52. Steps for preparation of DM Plans 1. Sensitisation meeting for awareness Teachers, College Management and students. 2. Formation of College Disaster Management Committee • Collage principal • Vice principal • Sub Divisional Magistrate of the area • Education Officer • President of Parents Teachers Association • Parents (1-2) • Local Medical Officer • Market trader association • Fire Officer • Police • Members of Civil Society (NCC,NSS, Red Cross, Scouts and Guides) • 4 Students
  • 53. Steps for preparation of DM Plans (cont…) 3. Hazard identification • History of disasters • Identification of potential hazard • Preparation of seasonality calendar 4. Inventory of resources 5. Mapping • Social Mapping • Resource Mapping • Vulnerability / Risk Mapping • Safe and Opportunity Mapping
  • 54. • Class rooms in the collage building • Laboratories • Play Ground • Collage Canteen • Library Social Mapping - collages • Human resources • Collage Buses • Generators • Fire extinguishers • Stretchers • Drinking water sources • Health Centre in the collage Resource Map - collages
  • 55. • Junior students • Physically challenged • Identification of potentially vulnerable areas in the collage Vulnerability/ Risk Map - collage • Identification of safe places in the collage • Alternative staircases/ routes to be identified Safe and Alternate route Mapping
  • 56. Collage DM Teams Early Warning Team Collage teacher Student (3 nos. most communicative) Activity/ Event Organising Team Disaster management teacher Art and Craft teacher Music teacher Prefects/ active students Search and Rescue Sports teachers Male teacher Prefect (students 2nos) Evacuation Fire safety Teachers (2 numbers) Students (4 numbers) Site security team Collage security staff Teacher (1 numbers) Students (2 numbers) First Aid team Resident doctor of the collage/medical consultant Teachers 2 nos. Students 2 numbers
  • 57. 7. Training of Collage Disaster Management Teams  Search and Rescue First Aid Trauma Counseling Fire fighting 8. Planning to be disseminated to everyone in the collage.
  • 58. 9. Mock Drill  Drills to be carried out twice a year  Drills should be hazard specific A disaster drill is an exercise in which people simulate the circumstances of a disaster so that they have an opportunity to practice their responses.
  • 59. 10. Plan Updation  Plans to be updated every six months  Plan to be approved by the Disaster Management Committee
  • 62. Safety of Collage buildings • Focus on structural and non-structural safety. Making collages Safer Before the Next Disaster Strikes
  • 63. A glance into this side street reveals a vast amount of fallen façade materials. Rescue work, fire trucks access, etc. is seriously hampered.
  • 64. Non - structural safety Because books represent a considerable mass, strong anchorage and bracing of the shelves in both main directions is necessary
  • 65. Act as a safe shelter. Health centre for the locality. Disaster management Information centre where data base could be maintained on population, health, institutions etc. A centre for learning and counselling. The collage can be feeding centre. Training for DRM volunteers, Village Council members, Teachers, Government officials at the Sub-Division level. The educational Institution can act as follows:
  • 66. ROLE OF TEACHER Awareness should be generated by teacher on different types of hazards and the preparedness measures to be taken to combat these disasters. Prepare a contingency plan for the collage in case of a fire, cyclone earthquakes and floods.  students should be told about primary escape route in the collage Train the students on First Aid and Rescue operations. Carry out mock drill in the collage at least twice a year. Initiate the process of plantation in the collage and giving knowledge on the type of trees to be grown. Generate awareness on water and sanitation among the students. The student should be demonstrated the actions to be taken when trapped in a fire.
  • 67. ROLE OF STUDENT IN DM .
  • 68. CONCLUSION Enthusiasm in disaster preparedness generally fades once an emergency phase is past, collages offer a good entry point for keeping communities alert and making disaster risk management more sustainable. Highly-educated teachers, community leaders, students and their parents can all play an important role in disseminating knowledge and keeping their communities well-prepared. Teachers & Youth as responsible citizens of our country should be a part and parcel of the disaster preparedness drive taken up in the country
  • 69. The Myths about Disasters • It Can’t Happen to Us. • The Nature’s forces are so Deadly the Victims will Die anyway. • There is Nothing We Can Do.
  • 70. Disasters: Negative and Positive Aspects Aspects Negative Aspects Positive aspects D I S A S T E R Damage Interruption Severe Antagonistic Scourge Traumatic Emergency Risk Development Innovation Sharing Awareness Self sufficiency Transformation Education Resilience