DISASTER alphabetically means-
D – Destructions
I – Incidents
S – Sufferings
A – Administrative
S – Sentiments
T – Tragedies
E – Eruption of Communicable Diseases
R – Research Programme & its Implementation
“a sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes
great damage or loss of life” (Oxford dictionary)
“a catastrophic, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in
any area, arising from natural or man-made cause, or
by accident or negligence which results in substantial
loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and
destruction of property, or damage to, or degradation
of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude
as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community
of the affected area” (Disaster Management Act 2005)
7. DISASTER dimensions
– Disruption to normal pattern of life, usually
severe and may also be sudden, unexpected
– Human effects like loss of life, injury, hardship
and adverse effect on health
– Effect on social infrastructure such as
destruction of or damage to government
systems, buildings, communications and
– Community needs such shelter, food,
clothing, medical assistance and social care.
8. Impact of Disasters
• Direct effects include deaths, injuries and
• Secondary disaster impacts such as releasing
fire or hazardous material that is triggered by
• Indirect impacts include the ripple effect
resulting from the flow of goods, services,
9. GENERAL EFFECTS OF DISASTER
LOSS OF LIFE.
INJURY, ILLNESS, DISEASE
DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PROPERTY.
DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PRODUCTION.
DISRUPTION OF LIFESTYLE.
LOSS OF LIVELIHOOD.
DISRUPTION TO ESSENTIAL SERVICES.
DAMAGE TO NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE.
DISRUPTION TO GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEMS.
NATIONAL ECONOMIC LOSS.
SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL AFTER
11. Distinction between
Hazard and Disaster :
“A hazard is a natural event while the disaster
is its consequence. A hazard is a perceived
natural event which threatens both life and
property….a disaster is a realization of this
– John Whittow, Disaster. 1980
13. COMPONENTS OF DISASTER
Risk is a measure of the expected losses due to a hazardous event of a
particular magnitude .The level of risk depends on:
• Nature of the Hazard
• Vulnerability of the elements which are affected
• Economic value of those elements
Vulnerability is the extent to which a community, structure, service,
and/or geographic area is likely to be damaged
Hazards are Phenomena that pose a threat to people, structures, or
economic assets and which may cause a disaster.
The extent of damage in a disaster depends on:
• The impact, intensity and characteristics of the phenomenon
• How people, environment and infrastructures are affected by that
This relationship can be written as an equation:
• DISASTER RISK = HAZARD + VULNERABILITY
14. Disasters occur in varied forms
•Some are predictable in advance
•Some are annual or seasonal
•Some are sudden and unpredictable
Floods Days and weeks
17. NATURAL DISASTER
• A natural disaster is a consequence when a
natural calamity affects humans and/or the
• Various disasters like earthquake, landslides,
volcanic eruptions, flood and cyclones are
23. I. Water and Climate related Hazards
• Floods and Drainage Management
• Tornadoes and Hurricanes
• Cloud Burst
• Heat Wave and Cold Wave
• Snow Avalanches
• Sea Erosion
• Thunder & Lightning
26. DISASTER MANAGEMENT
The body of policy and administration decisions
and operational activities that pertain to various
stages of a disaster at all levels.
An applied science which seek, by systematic
observation and analysis of disasters, to improve
measures relating to prevention, mitigation,
preparedness, emergency response and recovery.
Encompass all aspects of planning for and
responding to disasters, including both pre and post
27. A CONTINUOUS AND INTEGRATED PROCESS OF PLANNING, ORGANISING,
COORDINATING AND IMPLEMENTING MEASURES WHICH ARE NECESSARY
OR EXPEDIENT FOR:
(i) Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster;
(ii) Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or
(iv) Preparedness to deal with any disaster;
(v) Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster;
(vi) Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster;
evacuation, rescue and relief;
(vii) Rehabilitation and reconstruction;
(Disaster Management Act, 2005)
29. • Prevention
Six elements that defines the complete approach to
31. PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
1. DM is the responsibility of all spheres of government.
2. DM should use resources that exist for a day-to-day purpose.
3. Organizations should function as an extension of their core business.
4. Individuals are responsible for their own safety.
5. DM planning should focus on large-scale events.
6. DM planning should recognize the difference between incidents and
7. DM operational arrangements are additional to and do not replace
incident management operational arrangements.
8. DM planning must take account of the type of physical environment
and the structure of the population.
9. DM arrangements must recognise the involvement and potential role of
non- government agencies.
Activities prior to a disaster
• Preparedness plans
• Emergency exercises
• Warning systems
Activities that reduce
effects of disasters
• Building codes &
• Public education
Activities following a
• Temporary housing
• Claims processing
• Medical care
Activities during a
• Public warning
• Search & rescue
34. Disaster Preparedness
• It involves measures to ensure that
communities and services are
capable of coping with the effect of
35. Disaster preparedness
Preparedness should be in the form of
money, manpower and materials
Evaluation from past experiences about risk
Location of disaster prone areas
Organization of communication, information
and warning system
Ensuring co-ordination and response
Development of public education programme
Co-ordination with media
National & international relations
Keeping stock of foods, drug and other
• Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping to include
• Assess strengthening requirements and execute.
• Funding for preparedness must be arranged.
• Peoples’ cooperation through Political leaders,
elders, Volunteers and NGOs
• Create lead time by interpreting Warnings
• Plan to include movement of resources with time
• Aim to reduce the destructive potential of
disasters, timely & appropriate relief to victims
and quick & durable recovery
39. Disaster Response
It involves measures taken in
anticipation of, during and immediately
after a disaster to ensure that the
effects are minimized.
• Epidemiologic surveillance
and disease control
40. Disaster Response Activities
Search and Rescue
Logistics and Supply
Communication and information Management
Survivor Response and coping
EOC & coordination
Expedite rehabilitation and reconstruction.
41. EXAMPLE OF DISASTER RESPONSE
1. Implementing the disaster
2. Setting up medical camps
and mobilizing resources
3. Providing adequate
shelter and sanitary
4. Deployment of search and
42. Disaster relief
This is a coordinated multi-agency response to
reduce the impact of a disaster and its long-term
results. Relief activities include
Providing food and water
Preventing disease and disability
Repairing vital services such as
telecommunications and transport
Providing temporary shelter and emergency
43. Disaster recovery
Recovery activities include
These should blend with development activities, such as
building human resources for health and developing policies
and practices to avoid similar situations in future.
It involves measures, which support
emergency affected areas in reconstruction
of the physical infrastructure and restoration
of economic and emotional well being.
44. EXAMPLE FOR DISASTER
1. Counseling programme
for those who lost the
2. Restoring services like
roads, communication link
3. Providing financial
4. Reconstructing damaged
46. Disaster mitigation
This involves lessening the likely effects of emergencies. These include,
depending upon the disaster, protection of vulnerable population and
• Improving structural qualities of schools, houses and such other
buildings so that medical causalities can be minimized.
• Similarly ensuring the safety of health facilities and public health
services including water supply and sewerage system to reduce the cost
of rehabilitation and reconstruction.
The mitigation phase differs from the other phases because it focuses on
long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk.
This mitigation compliments the disaster preparedness and disaster
47. Prevention and Mitigation
It involves measures to eliminate or reduce the
incidence of severity of disasters.
habitation in risk
2. Disaster resistant
49. Major areas of concern are:
• Inclusion of disaster management in
• Disaster management, awareness and
preparedness in institutions.
• Safety of institutions from natural hazards –
structural and non structural.
• Preparation of the Disaster Management
Plans at institutions level
50. What is a safe institution?
• Either located in a
hazard free area, or
one that has been
withstand the hazard
to which it is exposed.
• will not collapse or
get affected if a
51. Government of India initiatives:
1) Inclusion of disaster management in education
2) Disaster management - awareness and
preparedness in collages.
3) Preparation of collage DM plans
Disaster Management NOT a
A NECESSARY LIFE SKILL
52. Steps for preparation of DM Plans
1. Sensitisation meeting for awareness Teachers, College Management and
2. Formation of College Disaster Management Committee
• Collage principal
• Vice principal
• Sub Divisional Magistrate of the area
• Education Officer
• President of Parents Teachers Association
• Parents (1-2)
• Local Medical Officer
• Market trader association
• Fire Officer
• Members of Civil Society (NCC,NSS, Red Cross, Scouts and
• 4 Students
53. Steps for preparation of DM Plans (cont…)
3. Hazard identification
• History of disasters
• Identification of potential hazard
• Preparation of seasonality calendar
4. Inventory of resources
• Social Mapping
• Resource Mapping
• Vulnerability / Risk Mapping
• Safe and Opportunity Mapping
54. • Class rooms in the collage building
• Play Ground
• Collage Canteen
Social Mapping - collages
• Human resources
• Collage Buses
• Fire extinguishers
• Drinking water sources
• Health Centre in the collage
Resource Map - collages
55. • Junior students
• Physically challenged
• Identification of potentially vulnerable areas in the collage
Vulnerability/ Risk Map - collage
• Identification of safe places in the collage
• Alternative staircases/ routes to be
Safe and Alternate route Mapping
56. Collage DM Teams
Early Warning Team
Student (3 nos. most
Art and Craft teacher
Prefects/ active students
Search and Rescue
Prefect (students 2nos)
Teachers (2 numbers)
Students (4 numbers)
Site security team
Collage security staff
Teacher (1 numbers)
Students (2 numbers)
First Aid team
Resident doctor of the
Teachers 2 nos.
Students 2 numbers
57. 7. Training of Collage Disaster Management
Search and Rescue
8. Planning to be disseminated to everyone
in the collage.
58. 9. Mock Drill
Drills to be carried out twice a year
Drills should be hazard specific
A disaster drill is an
exercise in which
people simulate the
circumstances of a
disaster so that they
have an opportunity
to practice their
59. 10. Plan Updation
Plans to be updated every six months
Plan to be approved by the Disaster
62. Safety of Collage buildings
• Focus on structural and non-structural safety.
Safer Before the
63. A glance into this side
street reveals a vast
amount of fallen
Rescue work, fire
trucks access, etc. is
64. Non - structural safety
Because books represent a
considerable mass, strong
anchorage and bracing of the
shelves in both main directions is
65. Act as a safe shelter.
Health centre for the locality.
Disaster management Information centre where data base
could be maintained on population, health, institutions etc.
A centre for learning and counselling.
The collage can be feeding centre.
Training for DRM volunteers, Village Council members,
Teachers, Government officials at the Sub-Division level.
The educational Institution can act as follows:
66. ROLE OF TEACHER
Awareness should be generated by teacher on different types of
hazards and the preparedness measures to be taken to combat these
Prepare a contingency plan for the collage in case of a fire, cyclone
earthquakes and floods.
students should be told about primary escape route in the collage
Train the students on First Aid and Rescue operations.
Carry out mock drill in the collage at least twice a year.
Initiate the process of plantation in the collage and giving knowledge
on the type of trees to be grown.
Generate awareness on water and sanitation among the students.
The student should be demonstrated the actions to be taken when
trapped in a fire.
Enthusiasm in disaster preparedness generally fades
once an emergency phase is past, collages offer a
good entry point for keeping communities alert and
making disaster risk management more sustainable.
Highly-educated teachers, community leaders,
students and their parents can all play an important
role in disseminating knowledge and keeping
their communities well-prepared.
Teachers & Youth as responsible citizens of
our country should be a part and parcel of
the disaster preparedness drive taken up in
69. The Myths about Disasters
• It Can’t Happen to Us.
• The Nature’s forces are so Deadly the
Victims will Die anyway.
• There is Nothing We Can Do.
Negative and Positive Aspects
Aspects Negative Aspects Positive aspects