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ROJoson PEP Talk: Screening and Periodic Health Check

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ROJoson PEP Talk: Screening and Periodic Health Check

  1. 1. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of the use of SCREENING and PERIODIC HEALTH CHECK as a strategy in STAYING HEALTHY AND CONTENTED. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  2. 2. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of the use of SCREENING and PERIODIC HEALTH CHECK as a strategy in STAYING HEALTHY AND CONTENTED. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check I have a Patient Empowerment Program in which I like to empower the lay people or patients to take control in the management of their health.
  3. 3. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of the use of SCREENING and PERIODIC HEALTH CHECK as a strategy in STAYING HEALTHY AND CONTENTED. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check What I have in mind in my PEP TALK which may run for 3 years is to empower at least 30 persons, with my family members and my patients as a priority. This is my key performance indicator. I hope you will be in my group of 30.
  4. 4. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of the use of SCREENING and PERIODIC HEALTH CHECK as a strategy in STAYING HEALTHY AND CONTENTED. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check I launched this PEP TALK on May 15, 2021 with MODULE on COVID19. 2nd Module: PATIENT EMPOWERMENT 3rd Module: PATIENT MANAGEMENT PROCESS 4th Module: RIGHTS IN PATIENT EMPOWERMENT
  5. 5. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of the use of SCREENING and PERIODIC HEALTH CHECK as a strategy in STAYING HEALTHY AND CONTENTED. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check 5th Module: STAYING HEALTHY AND CONTENTED 5 Parts • Introduction and Intentional Living Plan • Healthy Lifestyle Plan • Screening and Periodic Health Check • Early Diagnosis and Early Treatment • First Aid and Basic Medical Care
  6. 6. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of the use of SCREENING and PERIODIC HEALTH CHECK as a strategy in STAYING HEALTHY AND CONTENTED. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check My PEP TALK today is entitled: Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check.
  7. 7. We have heard of various terms such as executive check-ups, annual physical examinations, screening, surveillance, periodic health exam, periodic health check, etc. All of them have one thing in common in terms of purpose – looking for a disease that may be present in apparently healthy and asymptomatic persons. Let me try to dissect and collate the various terms. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  8. 8. Screening is the most encompassing term that signifies an action to try to detect potential health disorders or diseases in people who are apparently healthy and who do not have any symptoms of a disease. The goal of the screening is early detection of diseases so that they can be treated also early enough to avoid disability and death. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  9. 9. Screening can be done only once, meaning on a one-time basis. It may also be done repeatedly as in periodically, every so often, the periodicity of which may be determined based on risk factors of the patients such as occupation, age, family history, etc., the recommendations of organizations and/or wish of the patients. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  10. 10. The annual physical examination (APE) that is popularly being used in the workplaces and schools is an example of periodic screening. Other screening programs that are being done periodically are the so-called executive check-ups and cancer screening packages. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  11. 11. Executive check-up is a health screening program originally (historically speaking) being done for “executives” or people with senior managerial responsibility in business organizations. The phrase is still very popular up to these days even if the screening program has been extended to just anybody, the common people in the community. Hospitals and clinics still use the term “executive check-up” to market their health screening programs. There are different packages of executive check-ups. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  12. 12. Cancer screening packages are those screening programs being recommended by different medical organizations and governments intended for the early detection of different types of cancer. Examples are screening packages for breast cancers, colorectal cancers, prostatic cancers, cervical cancers, etc. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  13. 13. Periodic health check and periodic health examination are terms that have started to be commonly used in the medical world to refer to the periodic screening instead of the traditional executive check-ups and annual physical examinations. These terms encompass all past and current screening health programs such as executive check-ups, annual physical examinations, cancer screening, and others. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  14. 14. Except for the Newborn Screening Program, in the Philippines, all existing screening programs are not mandated by law. Again, except for occupational, travel and organizational requirements, subjecting oneself to a screening program is voluntary. There may be recommendations from medical organizations and governmental health ministries and peddling by hospitals and clinics but the decision rests on the individual persons. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  15. 15. Medical surveillance – how does it differ from medical screening or screening? Screening can be upleveled to medical surveillance where the connotation is that there is a need for close monitoring with screening. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  16. 16. Medical surveillance is usually done in the following situations:  After something unusual is found on screening and there is a need to closely observe or monitor the findings in order to get to a more definite diagnosis. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  17. 17. Medical surveillance is usually done in the following situations:  After a definite medical condition is found on screening and there is a need to closely observe or monitor it as it does not require an active treatment at the moment, the so-called expectant management or watch and wait management. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  18. 18. Medical surveillance is usually done in the following situations:  After a treatment of a definite medical condition or disease has been done (regardless of whether this medical condition or disease was found on screening or not) and there is a need to closely observe and monitor for persistence or recurrence of the medical condition or disease. Example: medical surveillance for cancer recurrence. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  19. 19. How does the World Health Organization define screening? The World Health Organization (WHO) in 1994 defines screening as the use of presumptive methods to detect unrecognized health risks or asymptomatic disease in apparently healthy individuals in order to permit prevention and timely intervention. Screening is performed to categorize members of the general public into those with higher or lower probability of disease, with the former group being urged to seek further medical attention for definitive diagnosis and treatment. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  20. 20. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO after removing the legal (Newborn Screening), occupational, travel, and organizational requirements. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  21. 21. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. YES, if you and your trusted physician have assessed that you, generally healthy, have a higher risk for developing a particular disease because of a strong family history. Some would use age as an indication – if there is a high incidence for a particular disease in a certain age group. If you should undergo screening, screen only for the identified disease at risk. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  22. 22. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. NO, if you and your trusted physician have assessed that you, generally healthy, do not have a higher risk for developing a particular disease as compared to the general population in your age group. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  23. 23. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. Other reasons for NO answers: Direct reasons: •Studies have shown that general or routine health checks had not reduced morbidity or mortality, neither overall nor for cardiovascular or cancer causes. https://www.bmj.com/content/345/bmj.e 7191 •Practical recommendation is to be selective, using risk-based approach. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  24. 24. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. NO - Other reasons: • Just like in curative medicine, the biggest pitfall in disease prevention, which screening is a strategy, is that things that ought to work, do not always do so. Even the strategy of screening has had its failures. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  25. 25. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. NO - Other reasons: • Just like in curative medicine, the biggest pitfall in disease prevention, which screening is a strategy, is that things that ought to work do not always do so. Even the strategy of screening has had its failures. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. NO - Other reasons: • The presence of false-positive results in screening tests has many asymptomatic patients wrongly labeled as being “ill.” • Instead of improving the quality of life of people, this phenomenon of “false labelling” has been found to wreak havoc on the social, psychological, physical and financial stability of unfortunate individuals. Furthermore, false positive tests often lead to a battery of expensive and unnecessary follow- up procedures.
  26. 26. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. NO - Other reasons: • The presence of false-negative results can give a false assurance that everything is okay, which may lead people to ignore or minimize new symptoms. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  27. 27. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. NO - Other reasons: • A lot of times, pounds of prevention translate to just an ounce of cure. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  28. 28. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. NO - Other reasons: • If you don’t go for periodic health checks and periodic health examinations, make sure to listen to and watch your body closely for symptoms of a particular disease. Once symptoms of a particular disease occur, consult a physician right away. With this strategy, you still have an opportunity to catch the disease early. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  29. 29. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? So - NOT ALWAYS! There is another option of promoting early diagnosis aside from periodic health check – the so-called symptom-based early health check. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  30. 30. I will be discussing symptom-based early health check in the next session under “Early Diagnosis and Early Treatment.” Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check 5th Module: STAYING HEALTHY AND CONTENTED 5 Parts • Introduction and Intentional Living Plan • Healthy Lifestyle Plan • Screening and Periodic Health Check • Early Diagnosis and Early Treatment • First Aid and Basic Medical Care
  31. 31. Focusing now on: Screening and Periodic Health Check It is used for people who are asymptomatic, apparently healthy who are screened for early detection of diseases so that they can be treated early enough to avoid disability and death. I will elaborate on the general methods, specific methods and tests and utility. I may make comments on advantages and disadvantages. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  32. 32. Myths (believed by many but not true) Screening and Periodic Health Check Screening and Periodic Health Check must always be done with laboratory tests and x-rays. NO. NOT TRUE! They can be done without laboratory tests and x-rays such as physical examination and risk-assessment interview. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  33. 33. Myths (believed by many but not true) Screening and Periodic Health Check Screening and Periodic Health Check done with laboratory tests and x-rays are always conclusive and always more accurate than without tests. NO. NOT TRUE! There are also false-positive and false- negative with laboratory tests and x-rays. Thus, they are not always more accurate. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  34. 34. Screening and Periodic Health Check General Screening Methods (commonly done) • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment interview and physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment and no physical examination • With use of gadgets with risk-assessment interview and physical examination • With use of gadgets without risk-assessment interview and physical examination Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Gadgets – include instruments used on top of inspection and palpation of physical examination such as thermometer; blood pressure apparatus; stethoscope; otoscope; nasopharyngoscope; ophthalmoscope; endoscopy; blood examination; imaging procedures (ultrasound, x- rays, CT scan, MRI, nuclear scan); etc.
  35. 35. Screening and Periodic Health Check General Screening Methods (commonly done) • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment interview and physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment and no physical examination • With use of gadgets with risk-assessment interview and physical examination • With use of gadgets without risk-assessment interview and physical examination Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Risk-assessment interview means asking the patient / person to explore for possible presence of significant risk-factors for a medical condition/s or disease/s. Physical examination means doing examination such as inspection and palpation of the body of a patient / person using the 5 senses of the physician and without use of gadgets.
  36. 36. Screening and Periodic Health Check General Screening Methods (commonly done) • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment interview and physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment and no physical examination Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Risk-assessment interview means asking the patient / person to explore for possible presence of significant risk-factors for a medical condition/s or disease/s. Physical examination means doing examination such as inspection and palpation of the body of a patient / person using the 5 senses of the physician and without use of gadgets.
  37. 37. Screening and Periodic Health Check General Screening Methods (commonly done) • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment interview and physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment and no physical examination Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Physical examination means doing examination such as inspection and palpation of the body of a patient / person using the 5 senses of the physician and without use of gadgets. Example: Annual PE in schools without lab tests
  38. 38. Screening and Periodic Health Check General Screening Methods (commonly done) • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment interview and physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment and no physical examination Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Can be done but not as effective as with physical examination Risk-assessment interview means asking the patient / person to explore for possible presence of significant risk-factors for a medical condition/s or disease/s. Example: History of close contact with COVID19 patients – high risk for COVID19 infection, asymptomatic
  39. 39. Screening and Periodic Health Check General Screening Methods (commonly done) • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment interview and physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just physical examination • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment and no physical examination Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Risk-assessment interview means asking the patient / person to explore for possible presence of significant risk-factors for a medical condition/s or disease/s. Physical examination means doing examination such as inspection and palpation of the body of a patient / person using the 5 senses of the physician and without use of gadgets. Comparing the effectiveness of the 3 methods, best will be that with risk-assessment interview and physical examination. PE can explore and investigate risk assessed in the interview.
  40. 40. Screening and Periodic Health Check General Screening Methods (commonly done) • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment interview and physical examination Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Risk-assessment interview means asking the patient / person to explore for possible presence of significant risk-factors for a medical condition/s or disease/s. Physical examination means doing examination such as inspection and palpation of the body of a patient / person using the 5 senses of the physician and without use of gadgets. Example: Risk-assessment interview: (+) significant risk for breast cancer in a 50 year-old female When doing physical examination, allot more time and effort on the breast for possible breast cancer.
  41. 41. Screening and Periodic Health Check General Screening Methods (commonly done) • Without use of gadgets, just risk-assessment interview and physical examination Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Risk-assessment interview means asking the patient / person to explore for possible presence of significant risk-factors for a medical condition/s or disease/s. Physical examination means doing examination such as inspection and palpation of the body of a patient / person using the 5 senses of the physician and without use of gadgets. Example: Risk-assessment interview: (+) significant risk for stroke in a 60 year-old male When doing physical examination, allot more time and effort on neurologic examination, heart rhythm, etc.
  42. 42. Screening and Periodic Health Check General Screening Methods (commonly done) • With use of gadgets with risk-assessment interview and physical examination • With use of gadgets without risk-assessment interview and physical examination Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Gadgets – include instruments used on top of inspection and palpation of physical examination such as thermometer; blood pressure apparatus; stethoscope; otoscope; nasopharyngoscope; ophthalmoscope; endoscopy; blood examination; imaging procedures (ultrasound, x- rays, CT scan, MRI, nuclear scan); etc. Comparing the effectiveness of the 2 methods, risk-assessment interview and physical examination with screening gadgets is better because findings on interview and PE can be correlated with those on gadgets to reduce the problems of false-positive and false-negative conclusions.
  43. 43. Screening and Periodic Health Check General Screening Methods (commonly done) • With use of gadgets with risk-assessment interview and physical examination • With use of gadgets without risk-assessment interview and physical examination Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Gadgets – include instruments used on top of inspection and palpation of physical examination such as thermometer; blood pressure apparatus; stethoscope; otoscope; nasopharyngoscope; ophthalmoscope; endoscopy; blood examination; imaging procedures (ultrasound, x- rays, CT scan, MRI, nuclear scan); etc. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of the 2 methods, gadgets with risk-assessment interview and physical examination is better as the latter will rationalize the use of former - screening gadgets (i.e. done only when indicated).
  44. 44. Screening and Periodic Health Check Examples of screening gadgets being used: • Thermometer – temperature • Blood pressure apparatus – blood pressure • Weighing scale – weight • Stethoscope – heart beat and breathing • Otoscope – ear • Nasopharyngoscope – nose and throat • Ophthalmoscope – eyes • Blood examination – blood contents • Urinalysis – urine • Endoscopy – scoping any part of the body • Imaging procedures – any part of the body Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Gadgets – include instruments used on top of inspection and palpation of physical examination such as thermometer; blood pressure apparatus; stethoscope; otoscope; nasopharyngoscope; ophthalmoscope; endoscopy; blood examination; imaging procedures (ultrasound, x- rays, CT scan, MRI, nuclear scan); etc.
  45. 45. Screening and Periodic Health Check Examples of screening gadgets being used: • Thermometer – temperature • Blood pressure apparatus – blood pressure • Weighing scale – weight • Stethoscope – heart beat and breathing • Otoscope – ear • Nasopharyngoscope – nose and throat • Ophthalmoscope – eyes • Blood examination – blood contents • Urinalysis – urine • Endoscopy – scoping any part of the body • Imaging procedures – any part of the body Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Gadgets – include instruments used on top of inspection and palpation of physical examination such as thermometer; blood pressure apparatus; stethoscope; otoscope; nasopharyngoscope; ophthalmoscope; endoscopy; blood examination; imaging procedures (ultrasound, x- rays, CT scan, MRI, nuclear scan); etc. Once or repeatedly as indicated
  46. 46. Example of use of THERMOMETER (FEVER) as a screening tool Screening for possible COVID19 infection during pandemic Presence of fever – suspect COVID19 infection There are false-positive (not all fever are COVID19). There are false-negative (not all COVID19 patients present with fever). Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  47. 47. Example of use of BLOOD PRESSURE APPARATUS as a screening tool Screening for possible HYPERTENSION. Persistently elevated BP above normal - HYPERTENSION. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  48. 48. Example of use of WEIGHING SCALE as a screening tool Screening for UNDERWEIGHT, OVERWEIGHT, and OBESITY. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  49. 49. Example of use of COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC) as a screening tool Screening for blood disorders May detect ANEMIA, LEUKEMIA, and THROMBOCYTOPENIA. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  50. 50. Example of use of URINALYSIS as a screening tool Screening for urinary infection and kidney disease Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  51. 51. Example of use of Chest X-ray as a screening tool Screening for Pulmonary Tuberculosis Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  52. 52. Screening Methods for Diabetes • Risk-assessment Interview – higher risk if with family history of diabetes • Fasting plasma glucose test or FBS • HgA1c Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  53. 53. Screening Methods for Hypercholesterolemia • Risk-assessment Interview – higher risk if with family history of hypercholesterolemia • Lipid Panel Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  54. 54. Screening Methods for Breast Cancer • Risk-assessment Interview – higher risk if with family history of breast cancer • Breast self-examination • Physician breast examination • Mammography Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  55. 55. Screening Methods for Colorectal Cancer • Risk-assessment Interview – higher risk if with family history of colorectal cancer • Rectal examination • Fecal occult blood test (Fecal Immunochemical Test – FIT) • Colonoscopy Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  56. 56. Screening Methods for Prostatic Cancer • Risk-assessment Interview – higher risk if with family history of prostatic cancer • Rectal examination • PSA – Prostatic Surface Antigen Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  57. 57. Screening Methods for Cervical Cancer • Risk-assessment Interview – higher risk if with family history of cervical cancer • PAP Smear • HPV Test Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  58. 58. Screening Methods for Lung Cancer • Risk-assessment Interview – higher risk if with family history of lung cancer • Low-dose CT Scan • Chest X-ray Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  59. 59. There you are. Screening and Periodic Health Check I have given you examples of screening methods using different approaches – risk-assessment interview, physical examination and use of gadgets. Periodic Health Check means the screening is done from time to time (at certain intervals, regularly or not – meaning as needed). Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  60. 60. In this era of commercialism in medicine and health care, where there are a lot of hospitals and laboratory clinics peddling screening packages, one should understand the • indications • pros and cons of screening and periodic health check. Don’t be swayed easily by the marketing and discount offers. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  61. 61. The most cost-effective indication is still to have screening and periodic health check if there is a high risk for a certain disease. The other indication is to do screening and periodic health check (especially using expensive gadgets) only if there is a good chance for a curative treatment of the discovered disease. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  62. 62. Another advice is to look at the scientific data on cost-effectiveness of screening and periodic health checks. Good sources of information: • US Preventive Service Task Force • Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  63. 63. Example of use of COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC) as a screening tool One of the most abused blood test. Clinical question Is there evidence for screening with complete blood count (CBC) in asymptomatic, nonpregnant adults? Bottom line Neither CBC nor its components should be ordered for screening asymptomatic, nonpregnant adults, as it does not reduce mortality. Up to 11% of results are abnormal but less than 1% of results require management change. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check https://www.ncbi.nl m.nih.gov/pmc/artic les/PMC5638475/?f bclid=IwAR2PU- MEyDUd6DwuZA7N hZrnNXFDzdRS2Dvk TgcXmGki0opef5CM DzsYji8
  64. 64. Example of use of URINALYSIS as a screening tool Another commonly abused test. Not recommended except in pregnant women. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check https://www.uspreve ntiveservicestaskforce .org/uspstf/recomme ndation/asymptomati c-bacteriuria-in- adults-screening US PSTF
  65. 65. Lipid Panel Recommendations: • Screen men age 35 and older for lipid disorders. • Screen women age 45 and older for lipid disorders if they are at increased risk for coronary heart disease. • Men age 20 to 35 and women age 20 to 45 that are at increased risk for coronary heart disease should be screened for lipid disorder. • Reasonable options for screening interval include: every 5 years; screening at 5 years for low-risk people who have had low or repeatedly normal lipid levels. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check USPSTF - 2020 NOT EVERY YEAR!
  66. 66. Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations: • In women aged 40 to 49 years, mammography is not recommended • In women aged 50 to 74 years, mammography every 2 to 3 years is recommended • Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound scans are not recommended for screening Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Canadian TFPH - 2021 NOTE THE AGE!
  67. 67. In this era of commercialism in medicine and health care, where there are a lot of hospitals and laboratory clinics peddling screening packages, one should understand the • indications • pros and cons of screening and periodic health check. Don’t be swayed easily by the marketing and discount offers. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  68. 68. Screening and Periodic Health Check is used for people who are asymptomatic, apparently healthy who are screened for early detection of diseases so that they can be treated early enough to avoid disability and death. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Conclusion Take Away
  69. 69. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. YES, if you and your trusted physician have assessed that you, generally healthy, have a higher risk for developing a particular disease because of a strong family history. If you should undergo screening, screen only for the identified disease at risk. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Conclusion Take Away
  70. 70. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. NO, if you and your trusted physician have assessed that you, generally healthy, do not have a higher risk for developing a particular disease as compared to the general population in your age group. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check Conclusion Take Away
  71. 71. Should I have a periodic health check (PHC) or periodic health examination (PHE)? The answer is YES and NO. NO If you don’t go for periodic health checks and periodic health examinations, make sure to listen to and watch your body closely for symptoms of a particular disease. Once symptoms of a particular disease occur, consult a physician right away. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  72. 72. Symptom-based early health check means that at the onset of symptom, a patient consults a physician right away for early diagnosis so that a discovered disease can be treated early enough to avoid disability and death. Symptom-based early health check also carries an opportunity to catch the disease early. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  73. 73. A thing that has to be emphasized also: If an early staged disease is diagnosed, whether from periodic health check or from symptom- based health check, this should be followed by early treatment to get good results. A late treatment by the patient for whatever reasons will negate the gain of the early diagnosis. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check
  74. 74. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of the use of SCREENING and PERIODIC HEALTH CHECK as a strategy in STAYING HEALTHY AND CONTENTED. Staying Healthy and Contented – Screening and Periodic Health Check

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