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production and downstream process of Organic acids-citric and lactic acid

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insights of production and downstream processing of two industrially important acids(fermentation technology).

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production and downstream process of Organic acids-citric and lactic acid

  1. 1. 1 . CITRIC ACID 2. LACTIC ACID RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware Production and downstream processing of organic acids. RIDDHI KARNIK MSc II
  2. 2. Organic acid RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  Organic acids are organic compounds that possess acidic properties. One of the most common organic acids is carboxylic acid, which has the molecular formula RCOOH. Other common organic acids include sulfonic acid and alcohol  Organic acids can be used to manufacture a variety of products.  If we look at our food industry, citric acid is a type of organic acid found in products such as sodas and canned tomatoes.  Acetic acid is a very well known organic acid used to make vinegar. They are also used in pharmaceutical production, leather tanning, and the manufacture of other organic chemicals.
  3. 3. Introduction - Citric acid RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  Molecular formula C6H8O7  Citric acid produced by fermentation and suitable pH is around 3-6
  4. 4. Citric acid RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware Citric acid is widely used in the food industry as an acidulant and flavouring agent in beverages, confectionery and other foods in leavening systems for baked goods. As a food constituent, its use is unrestricted because it has GRAS status. This organic acid also has many non-food applications. They include roles in maintaining metals in solution for electroplating, as a cleaning and ‘pickling’ agent for metals, and as a replacement for polyphosphates in the detergent industry, along with several pharmaceutical uses.
  5. 5. RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware Until the 1920s citric acid was mainly prepared from lemon juice, but in 1923 Pfizer began operating a fermentation- based process in the USA. The production organism was the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, an obligate aerobe, which was grown in surface culture on a medium of sucrose and mineral salts Since the late 1940s, submerged fermentations have become the principal mode of production. Many microorganisms, including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria, can be used to produce this primary metabolite.
  6. 6. CITRIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  The metabolic pathways involved in citric acid biosynthesis are the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas (EMP) pathway and the TCA cycle.  A. niger also operates the pentose phosphate pathway, which can compete with glycolysis for carbon units.  But in order to accumulate citrate, its onward metabolism (continuation of the cycle) must be blocked.  This is achieved by inhibiting aconitase, the enzyme catalysing the next step in the TCA cycle.  Inhibition is accomplished by removal of iron, an activator of aconitase
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  8. 8. RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  Consequently, during citrate accumulation, the TCA cycle is largely inoperative beyond citrate formation  Hence the importance of the anaplerotic routes of oxaloacetate formation.
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  11. 11. FERMENTATION PROCESSES USED IN CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware 1. Surface and solid-substrate fermentations 2. Submerged processes
  12. 12. Surface and solid-substrate fermentations RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  These methods use simple technology and have low energy cost, but are more labour intensive.  Liquid surface methods involve placing the sterilized medium, usually containing molasses plus various salts, into shallow (5–20 cm deep) aluminium or stainless steel trays stacked in an aseptic room.  The trays are inoculated by spraying with A. niger spores, either a spore suspension or dry spores.  Solid-state fermentation processes for citric acid production are small-scale operations.
  13. 13. Submerged processes RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  More than 80% of the worldwide supply of citric acid is produced using submerged batch fermentation in stirred tanks or larger airlift fermenters.  These fermentations mostly use beet or cane molasses as the carbon source.  Unlike surface methods, vegetative inocula, rather than spores, are normally used.  These fermentations are highly aerated and maintained at 30°C.  For the initial growth phase, the pH starts at 5–7, but must then be kept below 2  Overall yields of 0.7–0.9 g citrate per gram glucose can be attained in these submerged fermentations with productivities of up to 18.0kg/m3 per day.  Smaller volumes of citric acid are also produced using yeasts such as Candida guilliermondii and Yarrowia (formerly
  14. 14. CITRIC ACID RECOVERY RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  First step is the removal of fungal mycelium from the culture medium.  Further polishing filtration may be necessary to remove residual mycelia and precipitated oxalate.  The resulting clarified solution is heated and lime (CaO) is added to form a precipitate of calcium citrate.  This is separated by filtration and treated with sulphuric acid to generate citric acid and a precipitate of calcium sulphate (gypsum).  Following filtration, the dilute citric acid solution is decolorized with activated carbon and evaporated to produce crystals of citric acid.  These crystals are recovered by centrifugation, then dried and packaged.  Alternate recovery methods used are solvent extraction, ion-pair extraction and electrodialysis.
  15. 15. Lactic acid RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  Lactic acid is with the formula CH3CH(OH)CO2H. In its solid state, It is a white and water-soluble. In its liquid state, it is clear. It is produced both naturally and synthetically.  Lactic acid is primarily used in the food industry, where 30000 tonnes are incorporated into food each year to act as a preservative, an acidulant, or in the preparation of dough conditioners.  Its salts are also used in other industries, for example, antimony lactate is used as a mordant in dyeing and sodium lactate has applications as a plasticizer and corrosion inhibitor.  Lactic acid is produced in 20000–100000L anaerobic fermentations using Lactobacillus delbruckii or other homolactic bacteria such as L. bulgaricus
  16. 16. RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  The media normally contain a complex nitrogen source and vitamin supplements, along with up to 12% (w/v) sucrose or glucose as a carbon and energy source.  These carbohydrates are metabolized to pyruvate via the EMP pathway, which is then converted to l (+) lactate by l-lactate dehydrogenase.  Lactic acid fermentations are operated at 45– 60°C with a pH of 5–6. They last for 4–6 days and can achieve yields of over 90% based on sugar supplied
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  18. 18. Recovery RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  It is very challenging to recover pure lactic acid from medium  Recently great amount of research work is being carried out regarding downstream processing of lactic acid but success rate is very low.  To recover and purify the L-lactic acid produced from the microbial fermentation media economically and efficiently, ion exchange chromatography is used among the variety of downstream operations.  Nanofiltration and microfiltration membrane  Desalting electrodialysis
  19. 19. RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware Source -V HÁBOVÁ, K MELZOCH and RYCHTERA {Modern Method of Lactic Acid Recovery
  20. 20. RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  Out of various processes the comparative studies showed that:  Two stage electrodialysis is a suitable and efficient technique for the recovery of lactate ions from the pretreated fermentation broth and the subsequent conversion into lacticacid with respect to environmental aspects
  21. 21. References RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  Belén Max1; José Manuel Salgado , BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF CITRIC ACID, Brazilian Journal of Microbiology (2010) 41: 862-875  H V., M K., R M. (2004): Modern method of lactic acid recovery from fermentation broth. Czech J. Food Sci., 22: 87– 94.  Tayyba Ghaffar , Muhammad Irshad ,*, Zahid Anwar, Tahir Aqilb,Zubia Zulifqar, Asma Tariq , Muhammad Kamran , Nudrat Ehsan . Recent trends in lactic acid biotechnology: A brief review on production to purification , 11 March 2014,Accepted 15 March 2014,Available online 13 April ,Journal of Radiation Research and Applied ,Sciences journal homepage: http: / /www.elsevier.com/locate/jrras.  Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction( Michael J. Waites)
  22. 22. RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware Thank you!!! For your attention Thought of wise— “All power is within you; you can do anything and everything.” -SWAMI VIVEKANANDA
  23. 23. RIDDHI KARNIK MSc garware  Dr A.P.J Abdul Kalam