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Sustainable tourism
Sustainable tourism
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  1. 1. Sustainable Tourism Development
  2. 2. Objectives • Understand the different stages in destination development • Understand sustainable tourism development and its benefits • Identify the different prerequisites of a sustainable tourism development. • Analyze the roles played by various stakeholders in sustainable tourism development.
  3. 3. Stages of Destination Development
  4. 4. Stage 1: Discovery • The stage of exploration • A destination begins as a relatively unknown place and visitors initially come in small numbers restricted by lack of access, facilities, and local knowledge
  5. 5. Stage 1: Discovery Boracay during 1970s
  6. 6. Stage 2: Development • The stage of growth • As more people discover the destination, the word spreads about its attractions and the amenities are increased and improved
  7. 7. Stage 2: Development Boracay during 1980s
  8. 8. Stage 3: Stagnation • The stage of maturity • Tourist arrivals then begin to grow rapidly toward some theoretical carrying capacity which involves social and environmental limits. • Often happens rapidly.
  9. 9. Stage 3: Stagnation
  10. 10. Stage 4: Decline • Possible trajectory of a destination after the stage of stagnation • The stage of saturation and alienation • Increased congestion and unsustainable development caused the resources that originally drew visitors to the destination to become corrupted, or no longer exist. • The destination has become saturated • The appeal of the destination has disappeared and the tourists now look for unaltered destination
  11. 11. Stage 4: Decline
  12. 12. Stage 4: Rejuvenation • Possible trajectory of a destination after the stage of stagnation • Technological developments or infrastructure improvements leading to increased carrying capacity can help rejuvenate a destination.
  13. 13. Resources for Developing Tourism • Resources can be divided into 4 categories: – Capital – Labor – Materials – Knowledge • In tourism, materials include natural and human-made assets.
  14. 14. Terrestrial s Features, Marine Features, Wildlife Cultures, Customs, History Building, Structures Production Service Equity Investment Knowledge Experience
  15. 15. Why Do We Need Sustainable Planning? • Resources are scarce and finite. • Society must choose among economic activities including tourism that could have higher returns to scale. • Provided that tourism increases economic diversion, then resources can be allocated in developing it.
  16. 16. What is Sustainable Development? Sustainable development is progress that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future to meet their own needs (UN WCED, 1987).
  17. 17. In tourism, sustainability means… • Achieving quality growth in a manner that does not deplete the natural and built-in environment and preserves the culture, history and heritage of local community. • Achieving balance between number of visitors and the capacity of the given environment • Greatest interaction and enjoyment with the least destruction.
  18. 18. Carrying Capacity • The largest number of people a destination can efficiently manage within its given environ and management capabilities
  19. 19. Issues to be considered: • Natural and man-made cultural and environmental resources comprising tourism product are conserved and renewed when necessary. – For the benefit of succeeding generations. – Tourists not only consume the tourism product, they should be made aware of the need to protect it.
  20. 20. Issues to be considered: • Tourism must be beneficial for the receiving destination, region and country. – For the receiving destination to be prepared to accommodate tourists and hospitality be extended when tourists overstayed.
  21. 21. Issues to be considered: • Maintaining and renewing the tourism product is critical. – To sustain steady tourist flow – To ensure tourist satisfaction – Sometimes, this means limiting tourists flows
  22. 22. Issues to be considered: • Benefits and costs must be politically acceptable for the governing entities at national, regional and destination levels.
  23. 23. Prerequisites to Sustainable Tourism Development • High quality attractions • Tourism infrastructure • Community support and tolerance • Government assistance at all levels • Personal security and safety of tourists • Code of ethics and behavior of tourists
  24. 24. High Quality Attractions • Attractions draw visitors • Offers experiences that visitors want and need • The goal of sustainable tourism development is the preservation of the attractions so that future generations can enjoy them
  25. 25. Attributes of Attractions • Natural or human made • Fixed or mobile • New or ancient • Large or small • Temporary or permanent • Maybe designed for some type of human activity • Unique
  26. 26. Key Players • Private Sector – Owns and operates profit making tourist attractions and facilities • Government Sector – Owns and operates public facilities and attractions – Establishes regulatory guidelines • NGOs
  27. 27. Tourism Infrastructure The sum total of basic facilities, equipment and installations needed for a functioning tourism industry. • Tourist Facilities • Transportation System • Utilities • Health Facilities • Cultural and recreational infrastructures
  28. 28. Tourism Infrastructures • Infrastructures may be owned privately • Maybe operated for profit or non profit • Infrastructures serve tourists as well as local population • Regardless of who builds and operates them, infrastructures must be carefully planned and executed. • Infrastructures must serve higher goals of the nation, region and destination. • Public opinions must be heard and political systems must be employed in evaluating the merits of proposed tourism projects.
  29. 29. Mistakes are made when single purpose tourism infrastructures are narrowly conceived and rushed. Feasibility and market studies are required to evaluate the financial realism and the environmental, social and economic impacts of tourism development.
  30. 30. Community Support and Tolerance Culture: •Has numerous and diverse traits •A learned behavior •Creation of human mind and practice •Spreads through communication •Not limited to human acts, customs or material possessions •Embraces a large field of human behavior and creativity
  31. 31. Community Support and Tolerance • Cultural harmony is an important issue in sustainable tourism development. • Cultural diffusion is the process of spreading individual cultural traits from their source to other areas. • Tourism is a means of transmitting culture. • A safe and secure environment must be established where law prevails and local culture is protected.
  32. 32. Community Support and Tolerance • Harmony between traditional and foreign cultures must be established through demonstration and communication – Mutual respect can be gained – Acceptance of tourism and cultural changes can be achieved
  33. 33. Government Assistance • National level – Initiates tourism development • Regional level & local level – Strategy is broken down into components – Assigned to different agencies for implementation
  34. 34. Personal Security and Safety of Tourists • Personal security is a prime consideration – War – Terrorism – Political instability – Natural disasters
  35. 35. Personal Security and Safety of Tourists • Well equipped medical facilities and competent medical staff are required – Emergency first aid kit – Exit strategy for tourists in cases of emergency
  36. 36. Personal Security and Safety of Tourists • To ensure safety of tourists, government services must be immediately available. • Local governments must be prepared to respond to multiple crises including ordinary and unexpected.
  37. 37. Code of Ethics and Behavior for Tourists • Tourists should extend their respect for local authority to the local population and culture. • To promote cultural understanding, tourists must be aware of the local codes of ethics, social mores and behavioral conventions.
  38. 38. Benefits of Sustainable Tourism Development • Developing new businesses • Expanding job opportunities • Increasing income • Marketing new products • Improving infrastructures • Encouraging diversification • Integrating local economy • Promoting community pride • Higher quality of life for local population