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Chap5 (tourism impacts)

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Chap5 (tourism impacts)

  1. 1. Chapter 5 TOURISM IMPACTS
  2. 2. Learning Objectives • Have a basic understanding on various impacts of tourism; • Be aware that tourism impacts can be categorized as positive or negative; • Know the range of perspectives of tourism impacts; • And outline methods (open discussion) on mitigating the negative impacts of tourism.
  3. 3. Key Perspectives on Tourism Impacts • Impacts are multi-faceted. • Tourism impacts can be categorized into three: economic, socio-cultural and environmental. • It can be positive (beneficial) or negative (detrimental). • The impacts also depends on the value and judgment of the observer.
  6. 6. Economic Impacts of Tourism POSITIVE 1. Foreign exchange earnings 2. Contribution to government revenues 3. Generation of employment 4. Balance of payment / trade account balance 5. Stimulation of infrastructure investment 6. Contribution to local economies NEGATIVE 1. Inflation 2. Opportunity costs 3. Dependency 4. Seasonality 5. Leakage 6. Enclave tourism 7. Seasonal character of jobs 8. Prostitution and the underground economy
  7. 7. Tourism and its Socio- Cultural Impacts
  8. 8. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM Introduction to Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism • sociology and culture • the tourist culture • elements of culture
  10. 10. Relevant Cultural Concepts
  11. 11. Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism POSITIVE/BENEFITS • Preservation and restoration of cultural heritage • Revival of traditional arts and crafts • Cultivation of cultural pride and sense of identity • Cross-cultural exchange NEGATIVE/COSTS • Loss of cultural character • Loss of authenticity and meaning of traditional arts and crafts • Commercialization of human relationships • Potential misunderstandings and conflicts between residents and tourists
  13. 13. Three Perspectives: (Relationship of Tourism and Environment) 1. Tourist-environment interactions 2. Tourist-host interactions 3. Host-environment interactions
  15. 15. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS 1. Environmental awareness. 2. Enhancements of local environment. 3. Protection and conservation of wildlife.
  16. 16. “Environmental Awareness Raising” • Tourism has the potential to increase public appreciation of the environment and to spread awareness of environmental problems when it brings people into closer contact with nature and the environment.
  17. 17. Enhancement of local environments • Retain and increase visitor numbers by improving the general amenity value of the local environment.
  18. 18. Protection and conservation of wildlife • Tourism acts as a force of conservation as it offers an alternative economic use. • Tourism draws attention to issues relating to biodiversity, endangered species and human impact on the environment. (Doswell, 1997)
  19. 19. Grupo Punta Cana, Dominican Republic - Luxury and conservation combined - The high-end resort was established with the goal of catering to luxury-class tourists while respecting the natural habitat of Punta Cana.
  20. 20. ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS 1. Inappropriate development 2. Loss of natural habitat and effects on wildlife 3. Pollution 4. Loss of spirit 5. Overcrowding and traffic congestion 6. Activities (affecting the natural environment)
  21. 21. Inappropriate development • Tourism development may be classed as inappropriate if it fails to be sensitive to the natural environment. • Long-term planning in environment terms should be done. • Costa del Sol – had undergone a powerful colonization of modern kind, it had robbed the shore of its natural features, displaced headlands and harbors with badly made structures. • Resorts in Pattaya, Thailand – considered to be overdeveloped.
  22. 22. Costa del Sol
  23. 23. Costa del Sol
  24. 24. Rabbit Resort – Pattaya, Thailand
  25. 25. Dusit Thani – Pattaya, Thailand
  26. 26. "Sustainable development for mature tourist towns : the Calvià model" • Javier BUSTAMANTE - Strategic Development Manager, Calvià (Mallorca) • A few examples. • Firstly the " cleaning up " Plan, with the demolition of hotels and buildings on the coastline, which aims to reduce the number of buildings. The results are clear for all to see… Another hotel was also replaced by a green area. In total, we have demolished 14 hotels and tourist buildings and replaced them with green areas. • Awareness campaigns promoting the use and conservation of the natural resources, especially WATER.
  27. 27. CALVIA
  28. 28. Loss of natural habitat and effects on wildlife • Development of facilities and subsequent tourist use may result in rapid or more gradual effects on habitats. • Trampling causes disturbance to vegetation and soil. • Not unlike the Galapagos Island, 600 miles of the coast of Ecuador.
  29. 29. Wildlife can be disturbed. (cheetahs in Amboseli National Park, Kenya)
  30. 30. Golden Toad in Monteverde Cloud Rainforest, Costa Rica Golden Toad, has declined in numbers at the same time as ecotourism has evolved in the area.
  31. 31. Greek Island of Zakynthos
  32. 32. • The Loggerhead Turtle in the Greek Island of Zakynthos has become endangered. The development threatens the turtles in six ways: 1. Loss of beach nesting areas. 2. Nesting females and young turtles disoriented by artificial illumination. 3. Noise 4. Traffic 5. Pollution 6. Activities in water
  33. 33. Deforestation in Nepal
  34. 34. Effects of trampling
  35. 35. Pollution
  36. 36. POLLUTION Water Noise Land (Solid Waste) Air
  37. 37. Water Pollution • Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater.
  38. 38. Air Pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere.
  39. 39. Noise Pollution Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human-, animal- or machine- created sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life.
  40. 40. Solid Waste Solid Waste is also referred to as rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk depending upon the type of material and the regional terminology. In living organisms, waste relates to unwanted substances or toxins that are expelled from them. (Caribbean Area)
  41. 41. Overcrowding and traffic congestion • Happens when the volume of tourists exceeds the capacity of an environment. • Overcrowding poses an increased risk of environmental damage through erosion and restricts visitor appreciation of the destination. • Inappropriate parking • Congestion damages vegetation, causes erosion and adds to localized pollution.
  42. 42. Effects of activities • Skiing/alpine tourism - mountain ecosystems are generally fragile but many are prone to intensive use. - many view skiing as a damaging activity because it requires associated development, such as lodges, resorts, roads and cause severe erosion and deforestation.
  43. 43. Effects of activities • Ecotourism - while the premise of ecotourism is to assist in conservation and well-being of local communities, it is often the case that ecotourism-based activities lead to deterioration in environmental quality. - proper planning and management is needed
  44. 44. Tourism, Global Warming and Climate Change • By 2050, tourism is expected to see its contribution to greenhouse gas emissions rise from 3 to 7%. • KYOTO Protocol, adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. (highlights the expected impacts of tourism in the environment) • Very significant because climate and temperature are important determinants of destination selection.
  45. 45. Tourism, Global Warming and Climate Change • Some expected effects may be; 1. Rising temperature in central European culture cities in peak season will lead to a decline in visitors. 2. Specific ecosystems s/as coral reefs will be affected. 3. In Alpine areas, shorter skiing seasons may arise.
  46. 46. • Experts begin to understand how climate change may reverse the shape of seasonality with a growing demand for coolness in summer, leading to increased energy consumption for air- conditioning, along with a greater number of extreme weather events which could disrupt tourism, such as flooding, sand storms, droughts and summer fires.
  47. 47. Specific Measures to Minimize Environmental Damage
  48. 48. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. The German tourism industry experience. Hotel Sector • installing water saving devices; • Abolishing individually wrapped food items at the breakfast buffet; • Using recycled paper and reusable bottles. • (Atrium Suites Manila)
  49. 49. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. • Resorts - Decreasing automobile traffic in resorts, clinic and recreational zones by constructing parking areas outside of the central areas and using electric buses. - (Club Noah Isabelle, El Nido, Palawan)
  50. 50. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. • Travel Agencies - Publication of brochure offering tips and information on species protection and environmentally proper behavior to vacationers.
  51. 51. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. • Transportation - Use high capacity airplanes to reduce noise and emissions of pollutants and fuel consumption. - “Garbage return initiative” LTU International Airways’ ecobag.
  52. 52. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. • Cities and Towns - Use of solar energy - Replacing regular light bulbs for energy-saving bulbs. - Promoting bicycles for inner city transport - Use of rain water
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