O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

Thesis and Outline

Próximos SlideShares
Outlining - EAPP
Outlining - EAPP
Carregando em…3

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 41 Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Diapositivos para si (20)

Quem viu também gostou (20)


Semelhante a Thesis and Outline (20)

Mais recentes (20)


Thesis and Outline

  1. 1. Formulating a Thesis Statement
  2. 2. Thesis Statement • The main idea of the whole composition. • One statement that describes the viewpoint you are going to express and support in your paper.
  3. 3. Thesis Statement • The purpose in the rest of the paper: – To prove the validity of the thesis • The thesis statement provides a controlling idea which will help you choose the resource materials you will use. • It helps the writer focused on the main idea of the research paper.
  4. 4. Thesis Statement • It is always written as a sentence, never as a phrase. – It is also called thesis sentence.
  5. 5. Example • Thesis statement: Ancient Greek culture is reflected in the lives of present day Greeks. • Controlling idea: “reflected in” – The writer will look for materials that describe the characteristics of ancient Grecian culture and characteristics of modern Grecian culture, and for any similarities between the two.
  6. 6. • It is usually the sentence that answers the question stated in the 3rd step in the writing of the research paper: – Stating a question that identifies the problem.
  7. 7. • Sample topic: – “Impact of robots on industry in the next millennium”
  8. 8. • Question: “What impact are robots likely to have on industry?” • Answer: “Despite of the misgivings of some people, robots will probably have a beneficial effect on industry and its work force.” • Thesis Statement: “Although the rapid growth in robot technology has aroused some fears of its consequences, robots will actually benefit everyone, and efforts are being made to lessen any harmful impact upon the work force.”
  9. 9. REMEMBER! • Because a thesis must prepare readers for facts and details, it cannot itself be a fact. • It must always be a generalization demanding proof or further development. • It must be a general statement of opinion not a self-explanatory statement of a fact.
  10. 10. Example • Too factual: Gunpowder was not used in China. • Revised: Gunpowder was not used in warfare in China as it was in Europe because the Chinese had a different attitude toward death, battle, and personal honor than did the Europeans.
  11. 11. CAUTION • Thesis Statement should NOT be any of the following: 1.Announcement rather than a statement: -The subject of this paper will be crimes. -All want to talk about the crime wave in our country. -The incidence of crimes in our country is the concern of this paper.
  12. 12. 2. Too broad statement: -Crime is a major concern of everyone in our country. 3. Too narrow statement: -There were five recorded robberies in our community last year.
  13. 13. 4. Too vague statement: -The problem of overcrowded prisons must be solved and tougher penalties must be imposed.
  14. 14. 1. A thesis cannot be a fragment; it must be expressed in a sentence. Poor: How life is in racial ghetto. Better: Residents of a racial ghetto tend to have higher death rate, higher disease rates, and higher psychosis rates than any other residents of American cities in general.
  15. 15. 2. A thesis must not be in the form of a question. Poor: Should eighteen-year-old males have the right to vote? Better: Anyone who is old enough to fight in a war is old enough to vote.
  16. 16. 3. A thesis must not contain phrases such as “I think.” Poor: In my opinion most men wear beards because they are trying to find themselves. Better: The current beard fad may be an attempt on the part of the men to emphasize their male identity.
  17. 17. 4. A thesis must not contain elements that are not related. Poor: All novelists seek the truth; therefore some novelists are good psychologists. Better: In their attempt to probe human nature, many novelists appear to be good psychologists.
  18. 18. 5. A thesis must not be expressed in vague language. Poor: Bad things resulted from religion are being taught in the classroom. Better: Religion as a part of the school curriculum should be avoided because it is highly personal and is a individual commitment.
  19. 19. 6. A thesis must not expressed in muddled or incoherent language. Poor: In Act One of Othello, to cause them to feel fury against Othello, Iago fuels Brabantio, Othello, Roderigo, and Cassio with deceit by telling those lies. Better: In Act One if Othello, Iago deceives several characters in order to further his plot to destroy Othello’s life.
  20. 20. 7. A thesis should not be written in figurative language. Poor: Religion is a phoenix bird of civilization. Better: As long as man can conceive the idea of God, religion will rise to give man a spiritual reason for existence.
  21. 21. Ask yourself the following: • Do I answer the question? • Have I taken the position that others might challenge or oppose? • Is my thesis statement specific enough? • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? • Does my essay support my thesis specifically without wandering?
  22. 22. Making an Outline
  23. 23. What is an outline? • An outline is an abbreviated picture of the parts of your paper and the order in which they will come. • You can think of it as a “road map” of your journey toward making a final product.
  24. 24. Outline • It shows the relationship of ideas. • It becomes the skeleton of your research paper. • It shows the main ideas to be expanded in the actual writing of the paper. • It indicates through its indentions and symbols the major and minor supporting ideas.
  25. 25. Why make an outline? • It helps to… – Stay on course and not get off-track when you put your final product together. – See if you have enough (or too much) material to support your thesis statement. – Figure out the order in which your subtopics will appear in your final product.
  26. 26. Two types of Outline 1. Topic Outline- It makes use of words, phrases or clauses; Hence, the lines don’t end with a period
  27. 27. Two types of Outline 2. Sentence outline- It makes use of sentences that contains only one idea. It is more detailed; hence more difficult to construct It reveals how coherent and unified the ideas in the outline are.
  28. 28. Number-letter sequence pattern I. A. B. 1. 2. a. b. II.
  29. 29. Decimal Pattern 1.0. 1.1. 1.2. 1.2.1. 1.2.2. 2.0.
  30. 30. An outline should have… • Main topics tell the main idea. – It is set off by a Roman numeral followed by a period. • Subtopics give supporting facts. – It is set off by a capital letter followed by a period. • Details give specific facts about the subtopics. – It is set off by a number followed by a period.
  31. 31. Topic outline with number sequence pattern I. Family Problems A. Custodial: Non-custodial Conflicts B. Extended Family C. Adolescent's Age II. Economic Problems A. Child Support B. Women's Job Training C. Lower Standard of Living D. Possible Relocation 1. Poorer Neighborhood 2. New School III. Peer Problems A. Loss of Friends B. Relationships with Dates
  32. 32. Sentence outline with decimal patterm 1.0. When family conflicts arise as a result of divorce, adolescents suffer. 1.1. During the first year, these young people may be depressed due to conflicts between the custodial and non-custodial parents. 1.2. Grandparents, aunts, and uncles are often restricted by visitation provisions. 1.3. Almost without exception, adolescents find divorce very painful, but they react in differing degrees depending on their age. 2.0. Some of the most negative effects on adolescents may be associated with economic problems. 2.1. The family will most probably experience a lower standard of living due to the cost of maintaining two households. 2.2. Some female custodial parents have poor job skills and must train before entering the job market. 2.3. The lower standard of living may result in misunderstanding and conflicts within the family. 2.4. The decreased standard of living, particularly for an untrained female custodial parent, often causes relocation. 2.4.1. The family may have to move to a poorer neighborhood in order to cut costs. 2.4.2. As a result, the adolescent may have to attend a different school.
  33. 33. 1. Logical Subordination • Items in the outline should be logically subordinated. • Subtopics listed under larger headings should be subordinate in meaning . – Should not be of equal importance or even greater. • Any subtopic should be related to the major topic under which it is listed.
  34. 34. 2. Parallel structure • All members of the divisions of equal rank should have similar grammatical structure. – If you start with a noun phrase for the first of the main headings, the 2nd , the 3rd , etc., must also be expressed as a noun phrases. – Unnecessary shifts from active to passive voice or from statement to question should be avoided
  35. 35. In addition… 3. Any subdivision which is subdivided must have at least two subdivisions, the new subdivisions being indented and marked by symbols
  36. 36. 4. Avoid mixing two types of outline, or the two sequence patterns in the same outline. Be consistent.