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Child labour

A PPT on Child Labour

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Child labour

  1. 1. • I am very thankful to everyone who all supported me, for i have completed my project effectively and, moreover, on time. I am equally grateful to my teacher Preeti Sharma. She gave me moral support and guided me in different matters regarding the topic. She had been very kind and patient while suggesting me the outlines of this project and correcting my doubts. I thank her for her overall support. Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents who helped me a lot in gathering different information, collecting data and guiding me from time to time in making this project. Despite their busy schedules, they gave me different ideas in making this project unique. Thank you, Sandeep 12-E
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION CHILD HAS BECOME AN IMPORTANT “SOCIAL ISSUE” IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY LIKE INDIA Child labour is the practice of having children engage in economic activity, on part or full-time basis. The practice deprives children of their childhood, and is harmful to their physical and mental development. Poverty, lack of good schools and growth of informal economy are considered as the important causes of child labour in India.
  3. 3. CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA According to the Census 2001 figures there are 1.26 crore working children in the age group of 5-14 as compared to the total child population of 25.2 crore. There are approximately 12 lacs children working in the hazardous occupations/processes which are covered under the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act i.e. 18 occupations and 65 processes. However, as per survey conducted by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) in 2004-05, the number of working children is estimated at 90.75 lakh. It shows that the efforts of the Government have borne the desired fruits.
  4. 4. Child Labour Fact Sheet • 73 million working children are less than 10 years old. • While buffaloes may cost up to 15,000 rupees , children are sold at prices between 500 and 2,000 rupees. • 47 out of 100 children in India enrolled in class I reach class VIII, putting the dropout rate at 52.79%. • Approximately 16.64% of villages in the country do not have facilities for primary schooling. (UNICEF) • 42 million children in the age-group 6-14 years do not attend school in India.
  5. 5. FACTS • According to the Indian census of 1991, there are 11.28 million working children under the age of fourteen years in India. • Over 85% of this child labour is in the country's rural areas, working in agricultural activities such as fanning, livestock rearing, forestry and fisheries. • The world’s highest number of working children is in India. ILO estimates that 218 million children were involved in child labour in 2004, of which 126 million were engaged in hazardous work.
  6. 6. • The Hindi belt, including Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, account for 1.27 crore working children in the country, engaged in both hazardous and non-hazardous occupations and processes. • Over 19 lakh child labourers in the 5-14 age group are in Uttar Pradesh.
  7. 7. Causes of Child Labour • OVER POPULATION: limited resources and more mouths to feed, Children are employed in various forms of work. • ILLITERACY :Illiterate parents do not realize the need for a proper physical,emotional and cognitive development of a child. • POVERTY: Many a time poverty forces parents to send their children to hazardous jobs. • URBANIZATION: MNC's and export industries in the developing world employ child workers, particularly in the garment industry.
  8. 8. Causes of Child Labour • ORPHANS: Children born out of wedlock, children with no parents and relatives, often do not find anyone to support them. Thus they are forced to work for their own living. • WILLINGNESS TO EXPLOIT CHILDREN: This is at the root of the problem Even if a family is very poor, the incidence of child labour will be very low unless there are people willing to exploit these children. • UNEMPLOYMENT OF ELDERS: Elders often find it difficult to get jobs. The industrialists and factory owners find it profitable to employ children. This is so because they can pay less and extract more work. They will also not create union problem.
  9. 9. Where do children work? • The Fireworks Industry. • The Glass Industry. • The Bidi Making Industry. • The Carpet Making industry. • The Silk industry
  10. 10. Agriculture • Of the 250 million child laborers worldwide, it is estimated that at least half of them work in agriculture alone. • There are many different types of agricultural work. One of them is picking fruits and vegetables. • The work is physically demanding because the children must bend down, kneel, climb ladders, carry heavy loads of fruit, and other things.
  11. 11. • They also are exposed to dangerous tools and have to use unsafe machinery they don't know how to operate. • Children who work in agriculture often experience back pain from bending over so much, and also have blistered and callused hands from operating machinery and using tools such as rakes, hoes, and shovels all day long.
  12. 12. The Fireworks Industry • Sivakasi in Tamil Nadu state, about 45,000-50,000 children working in the fireworks industry • Children earn about 15-18 rupees a day on piece-rates • When an inspector visits a factory, child workers are bundled into store-rooms and sheds • When asked if the long hours derived her of the pleasures of childhood, 12- year-old Kavitha gave a resigned look. • When asked if she would like to go to school like other girls, she shot back: "Who will feed me, then?"
  13. 13. Beedi Industry • Over 1.7 million children work as laborers in India’s beedi-rolling industry. • Children are engaged as their nimble fingers are more adept at rolling beedis. • Children are made to work up to 14 hours a day with no breaks or holidays. • Earning is as little as Rs.30 per 1,000 beedis on an average and the children hardly get anything. • Suffer from tuberculosis, postural and eye problems, anemia, lung and skin diseases.
  14. 14. • Some times children are abandoned by their parents or sold to factory owners • 70-80% of the 8,000 to 50,000 children work in the glass industry in Ferozabad. • The two hazardous types of furnaces used are the Pot furnaces the Tank furnaces • One of the most dangerous industries, where many deaths and mishaps occur on a regular basis, makes it imperative for the employers to hire mafia gangs to hush up the occurrence of such incidents.
  15. 15. Carpet Industry • 300,000 children employed in this industry. • Low wages and docile acceptance. • Work for 10-16 hours a day in terrible conditions. • Vast majority of migrant child workers sleep alongside of their loom, further inviting sickness and poor health. • Eyesight is damaged and lung diseases are common as a result of the dust and fluff from the wool.
  16. 16. Silk Industry • Over 50,000 children between the ages of 5 and 13 slog it out in the silk-weaving industry in Kancheepuram and Tiruvannamalai districts of Tamil Nadu. • Many work seven days a week round the year. • Average monthly income ranges from Rs.80 to Rs.250. • Require to dip hands in boiling hot water causing blisters. • Handle dead worms breeding infections. • Twist thread injuring their fingers .
  17. 17. Consequences For Children.. • Physical injuries and mutilations are caused by badly maintained machinery on farms and in factories, machete accidents in plantations, and any number of hazards encountered in industries such as mining, ceramics and fireworks manufacture • Pesticide poisoning is one of the biggest killers of child laborers. In Sri Lanka, pesticides kill more children than diphtheria, malaria, polio and tetanus combined. The global death toll each year from pesticides is supposed to be approximately 40'000 • Growth deficiency is prevalent among working children, who tend to be shorter and lighter than other children; these deficiencies also impact on their adult life
  18. 18. Consequences For Children.. • Long-term health problems, such as respiratory disease, asbestosis and a variety of cancers, are common in countries where children are forced to work with dangerous chemicals • HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases are rife among the one million children forced into prostitution every year; pregnancy, drug addiction and mental illness are also common among child prostitutes • Exhaustion and malnutrition are a result of underdeveloped children performing heavy manual labour, working long hours in unbearable conditions and not earning enough to feed themselves adequately
  19. 19. • ABSTRACT:-the problem of child labour has been more serious in developing countries. Due poverty, hunger, illiteracy, ignorance, traditional thinking and lack of proper implementation of child labour laws in our country ,the problem of child labour is still persist in our society. The children of age below 14 years have working in various fields and in very hazardous conditions. The number of child labour has been increasing in our country and the number of child labour is more in our country as compared to any other country in the world. Many provisions are provided in our constitution and in laws to control child labour but socio-economic conditions prevalent in the country do not force children to get compulsory education and to enjoy right to education. The attempt has been made in this paper to provide brief account of child labour laws in our country, reasons for child labour and suggestions to control child labour.
  20. 20. • CHILD LABOUR LAWS IN INDIA Various laws have been made in our country since 1933 to control child labour: • 1. Children (Pledging of labour) Act 1933. • 2. Employment of child Act 1938. • 3. The Bombay shop and establishment Act 1948. • 4. The Indian factories Act 1948. • 5. Plantation labour Act 1951. • 6. The mines Act 1952. • 7. Merchant shipping Act 1958 • 8. The apprentice Act 1961 • 9. The motor transport workers Act 1961 • 10. The atomic energy Act 1962 • 11. Bidi and cigar workers (condition of employment) Act 1966
  21. 21. • 12. State shops and establishment Act • 13. The child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986. • 14. The juvenile justice (care and protection) of children Act, 2000. • 15. Article 24 of our constitution and section 67 of the factories Act, explicitly direct that children below the age of 14 years are not allowed to work in factories. • 16. Article 21A (added by the 86th amendment Act 2002) provides that state shall provide free and compulsory education to children of age group 6-14 years. • 17. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 years
  22. 22. • EFFORTS BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA TO CONTROL CHILD LABOUR • The child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in 16 occupation and 65 processes that are hazardous to the children’s lives and health. According to Supreme Court’s direction on 10th December, 1996, recovery notice have been issued to offending employees for collection of a sum of Rs 2000 per child employed under the provision of Act. No child can be employed in hazardous occupations. Many states including Haryana have constituted the child labour rehabilitation –cum-welfare funds at district level and separate labour cells are being formed to address the issue.
  23. 23. • National child labour projects have been implemented by the central government in states from 1988 to provide non-formal education and pre-vocational skills. • From 2001, Sarve shiksha Abhiyan has been launched to educate poor and employed children in all states. • Ministry of women and child development has been providing non-formal education and vocational training. • Establishment of Anganbadies is also a big step by the government for the welfare of children and their physical, mental and educational development.
  24. 24. Non-governmental organizations Many NGOs like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, CARE India, Child Rights and You, Global march against child labour, RIDE India etc. have been working to eradicate child labour in India. Pratham is India's largest non-governmental organization with the mission 'every child in school and learning well.' Founded in 1994, Pratham has aimed to reduce child labour and offer schooling to children irrespective of their gender, religion and social background. It has grown by introducing low cost education models that are sustainable and reproducible. Child labour has also been a subject of public interest litigations in Indian courts.
  25. 25. Consequences of child labour • The presence of a large number of child laborers is regarded as a serious issue in terms of economic welfare. Children who work fail to get necessary education. They do not get the opportunity to develop physically, intellectually, emotionally and psychologically. In terms of the physical condition of children, children are not ready for long monotous work because they become exhausted more quickly than adults. This reduces their physical conditions and makes the children more vulnerable to disease. Children in hazardous working conditions are even in worse condition. Children who work, instead of going to school, will remain illiterate which limits their ability to contribute to their own well being as well as to community they live in. Child labour has long term adverse effects for India.
  26. 26. Forward Steps :- • The ideal scenario on Child Welfare would be when every child enjoys the fullness of childhood through education, recreation and adequate health facilities. It is impossible to attain these facilities by the child labour. All the children were able to enjoy the completeness of childhood only :  When the true conscience of the nation is awakened.  When all the policy makers and the bureaucrats take the issue of child labour seriously and commit themselves to the cause of the holistic development of every child in India.  When the employees would not even contemplate the idea of employing a child for any work which might deny the child of a normal childhood.  When all Policies laid down by the Government under various Plans and Laws were implemented properly.
  27. 27. How many are there?  61% in Asia, 32% in Africa, and 7% in Latin America, 1% in US, Canada, Europe and other wealthy nations.  In Asia, 22% of the workforce is children. In Latin America, 17% of the workforce is children.  246 million child workers aged 5 and 17 were involved in child labor.  Out of which 171 million were involved in work that by its nature is hazardous. According to certain experts approximately 10 million bonded children labourers are working as dome In South Asia. Beyond this there are almost 55 million bonded child labourers hired across various other industries. Less than 5% of child laborers make products for export to other countries.
  28. 28. CHILDLINE • Started in 1978 • Situated all over INDIA in 73 cities • Started in 1996 in Mumbai as a ‘CHILD INDIA FOUNDATION’, Grant Road • Works under CHILD WELFARE COMMITTEE (CWC) • Has large networking system CHILDLINE IN KALYAN • From last five years in Kalyan • Toll free no. 1098 • Name is ‘AASRA SANSTHA’ in Kalyan • Last year received 1,30,000 calls • 30,000 calls have been fulfilled up till now • Hires Professional Counselors for child rehabilitation and to develop them mentally and socially
  29. 29. WHAT ‘WE’ CAN DO AS A PERSON TO STOP CHILD LABOUR ? • To donate funds in NGOs working for the rehabilitation of street children • To make the rural people aware about the benefits of education • To provide free education for the orphans • To contact NGOs and make them aware about child labour happening in our society • To start campaign against child labour. • To help the government to stop child labour
  30. 30. Solution • If we want success then we have to act upon these principles and then our country can easily get rid of this problem. • We have to distribute the education free of coast, give flame to the candle of education and distribute the light of knowledge among the people as our Holy prophet (PBUH) also says that “get knowledge and distribute among others.” • If we want success then we have to act upon these principles and then our country can easily get rid of this problem.
  31. 31. CONCLUSION • The problem of child labour continues to pose a challenge before the nation. Government has been taking various pro-active measures to tackle this problem. However, considering the magnitude and extent of the problem and that it is essentially a socio-economic problem inextricably linked to poverty and illiteracy, it requires concerted efforts from all society to make a dent in the problem. • The social evil of child labour can be brought under control, if each individual takes responsibility of prevailing child labour. Each and every citizen should be aware of their responsibilities and should take corrective measures to stop child labour, so that we can have a better and developed India. Child labour can be controlled if the government functions effectively with the support of the public.