2. FOOD SAFETY
• Food safety refers to the routines in the preparation, handling and storage of food
meant to prevent food borne illness and injury
• From farm to fork ,food products may encounter any number of health hazards
during their journey through the supply chain
• Food served or sold to customers basically needs to be safe to eat
• Food safety is a primary concern for everyone, and assurance of safe and
wholesome food is the moral responsibility of each and every person who handles
3. HACCP, VACCP &TACCP- Acronyms
HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point)
TACCP (Threat Assessment Critical Control Point), and
VACCP (Vulnerability Assessment Critical Control Point)
4. Introduction to HACCP, VACCP, and TACCP
HACCP principles have not been routinely used to detect or mitigate against a
deliberate attack on the whole supply chain.
Threat Assessment Critical Control Point (TACCP) and Vulnerability Assessment Critical
Control Point (VACCP) are methodologies that align with the principles of HACCP but
specifically look at the threats and vulnerabilities posed to a business.
The principles behind TACCP and VACCP are therefore not significantly different from
However, the scope of both TACCP and VACCP are different from HACCP and therefore
guidance is useful in how to implement both systems.
5. Both TACCP and VACCP use the same risk management approach but there are subtle
differences between the two.
Threat Assessment Critical Control Point (TACCP) helps food producers to identify weak
points in their supply chain and processing activities that maybe open to intentional and
The TACCP protocol focuses on tampering, intentional adulteration of food and food
Vulnerability Assessment Critical Control Point (VACCP) focuses on food fraud as well but
widens the scope to include the systematic prevention of any potential adulteration of
food, whether intentional or not, by identifying the vulnerable points in the supply chain.
VACCP is especially concerned with economically motivated adulteration. Examples of
supply chain risks include product substitutions, unapproved product enhancements,
counterfeiting and stolen goods.
Logical and scientific approach to food safety
Helps procedures to prevent customer from food born illness
Proactive rather than reactive
Step wise process
Installs preventative measures to eliminate or reduce hazards in foods
It is an essential tool for ensuring that commercial food processors make a safe final
8. 7 Principles of HACCP
1. Identify/Assess Hazards
2. Establish Critical Control Points
3. Establish the Critical Limits
4. Establish Monitoring Procedures
5. Establish Corrective Action
6. Verification of Procedures
7. Record keeping
9. How Vaccp and Taccp Help an
Reduce the likelihood of a deliberate malicious attack
If an attack occurs , it reduce the impact on a business of that attack
Protects an organizations reputation
Reassures customers that the organization is managing appropriately the risks in
the supply chain and demonstrate due diligence
Demonstrate that reasonable precautions are in place to protect the supply
10. TACCP- Threat Assessment Critical Control Point
Reduce the likelihood (chance) and consequence
(impact) of a deliberate attack
Protect organizational reputation
Reassure customers and the public that proportionate
steps are in place to protect food
Demonstrate that reasonable precautions are taken
and due diligence is exercised in protecting food.
12. Methods of Threat Assessment
Assess the potential threats in supply chain and processes.
Develop an appropriate set of control measures for each identified threat.
Implement the controls and monitor them regularly.
Evaluate the existing control measures and update them as necessary.
Provide staff training on Threat Assessment Critical Control Points and use the TACCP risk
Document all processes, findings, and changes to create an audit trail
Management process to defend a food supply
chain from any form of dishonest conduct that
impacts detrimentally on the quantity or
authenticity of food and drink.
The focus is more on adulteration for financial gain
in the supply chain.
Example: Product substitution, bulking out with a
14. Food Frauds
A collective term used to encompass the deliberate and intentional substitution,
addition, tampering, or misrepresentation of food, food ingredients, or food packaging;
or false or misleading statements made about a product for economic gain that could
impact consumer health.
Susceptibility or exposure to a food fraud risk ,which is regarded as a gap or deficiency
that could place health at risk if not addressed
16. Substitution - Substitution is when a food product is replaced with a cheaper or lower-
quality product that is similar but inferior.
Eg: Olive oil is being replaced with sunflower oil
Concealment - Hiding of the low quality of food ingredients or product
Eg : poultry may be injected with antibiotics to mask disease and reduce bacterial load
during quality testing
Unapproved enhancement - Process of adding unknown and undeclared compounds to
food products in order to enhance their quality attributes.
17. Dilution- Olive oil mixed with other types of oil , wine with grape blend, and fruit juice diluted
in water then mixed with other ingredients to produce a similar taste while increasing the
Mislabelling – Horse meat mixed with beef but labelled and sold as beef
‘organic’ food being sold but found to have traces of ‘non- organic’ ingredients and
mislabelled sea food being sold in the market
Theft - Legitimate product is stolen and passed off as legitimately procured. Fraudulent
product is distributed outside of regulated or controlled supply chain. Here , the stolen
products are mixed with legitimate products
18. How to Implement VACCP?
Conduct a risk analysis. Evaluate any significant risks and exposures.
Determine the critical points for controlling the fraud.
Determine procedures and technical means of verifying each critical point to control security.
Determine the corrective measures to be implemented when the surveillance reveals that a
critical point for fraud control is no longer under control.
Apply verification procedures in order to confirm that the system is functioning effectively.
Build up a file which includes all procedures and reports concerning these provisions and
Practices for HACCP are well defined, VACCP and TACCP are much more
inter-related. Essentially, the three together help us to ensure the safety of
our products from both intentional and unintentional contamination.
HACCP focuses on protecting product from the unintentional, where TACCP
and VACCP focus on intentional contamination and preventing dishonest
conduct. Using these three food and beverage management systems
correctly and effectively will ensure to deliver a safe final product to the