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Components of environment

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Components of environment

  1. 1. COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT AIR, WATER, SOIL By P. RAMESH Research Scholar S.V. University, Tirupati
  2. 2. An environment comprises of two basic components Abiotic Components Biotic Components
  3. 3. Biotic Components It comprises the living part of the environment, which includes the association of a number of interrelated populations belonging to different species in a common environment.  The populations are that of animal community, plant community and microbial community.
  4. 4. Air is a mixture of different gases Including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour There are other gases that are useful but come in very small quantities AIR
  5. 5. Importance of Air for the Survival of Life Air is a mixture of many gases. Oxygen and nitrogen are the significant components of air that play an important role in the survival of life on earth. Air is always around us, though we have never seen it but always felt its presence. Air can be felt when the leaves of the trees rustle and the clothes hanging on the cloth wires swag. The pages of a book start fluttering when the fan in the room is switched on. The wind makes the kite fly. During storm the wind blows with high speed which can also uproot trees and blow off rooftops
  6. 6. We all need oxygen for respiration. The terrestrial lives directly take oxygen from the atmosphere for breathing. What about the organisms living in water or soil? Even they need oxygen in order to remain alive. Air in small concentrations is dissolved in water and aquatic organisms take this oxygen.
  7. 7. Animals are dependent on plants for oxygen and plants are dependent on animals for carbon dioxide (plants use carbon dioxide as a raw material for producing food). Hence plants and animals are interdependent and they maintain a balance between carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere
  8. 8. Fish need air that is in water to live
  9. 9. Air is important in allowing things to burn
  10. 10. The water is a chemical substance with the formula H2O. The water is very important for life, because it is vital. The animals or humans drink water because the body needs 75% water to do exercise for example: walk. Water covers 70% of the Earth. Like two thirds parts of the earth WATER
  11. 11. Water is the most common liquid on Earth. It covers about 71.4% of the Earth. Pure water has no smell, taste, or color. Lakes, oceans, and rivers are made of water Rain is water that falls from clouds in the sky. If water gets very cold (below 0 degrees Celsius), it freezes and becomes ice. Frozen rain is hail. Snow is formed from water vapour, not rain. If water gets very hot (above 100 degrees Celsius), it boils and becomes steam. Water is very important for life.
  13. 13. Sources of Fresh Water Sources of Fresh Water Surface water: Surface water is water in a river, lake or fresh water wetland. Surface water is naturally replenished by precipitation and naturally lost through discharge to the oceans, evaporation, and sub-surface seepage
  14. 14. Ground Water: Sub-surface water, or groundwater, is fresh water located in the pore space of soil and rocks. It is also water that is flowing within aquifers below the water table. Desalination: Desalination is an artificial process by which saline water (generally sea water) is converted to fresh water.
  15. 15. IMPORTANCES OF THE WATER Human uses the water in: Agriculture: The most important for the agriculture is for irrigation. For drinking: Because the body need 75% of water to do exercise.
  16. 16. Washing: Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene. Fire extinction: One of the important use of the water is the fire extinction.
  17. 17. Recreation: For example swimming, waterskiing, boating, surfing and diving. Industrial applications: Water is used in power generation.
  19. 19. • In the animal life the water is essential to life. Temperature regulation: The temperature of the animals should be between a specific range. Digestion: Water also serves for the lining to the acid in the stomach. WATER FOR THE ANIMALS
  20. 20. Water cycle consist in this three process: • Evaporation: from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into air. • Precipitation: from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to earth or ocean. • Runoff: from the land usually reaching the sea. Water cycle:
  21. 21. • Ways people waste water: (How to save it).  Dishwasher -Dishwashers can waste so much water if you run it when it is not full. A way to prevent this is to wash your dishes without use of the dishwasher.  Brushing Teeth / Washing Dishes WITH the Water Running- DO NOT keep water running while brushing your teeth/ doing the dishes. When you brush your teeth, wet the toothbrush first and turn the water off.  Shaving - When you taking the shower, do you really need the water running? Turn off the water while you shave your legs
  22. 22. Bath time! Bath time is no longer Fun time. It wastes an unnecessary amount of water. an average shower uses 1/5 the amount of water that is needed for a bath! Using the Toilet as a Garbage Can- Do Not Do This! Throw out everything in a garbage can, even if it is tempting to just throw it in the toilet.
  23. 23. Soil is a mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and countless organisms that together support life on Earth. SOIL
  24. 24. 1. Plants grow in and on soil. 2. Plants support animal life. 3. Plants and animals support human life. 4. World population is rapidly increasing, which increases the need for food. 5. A large part of the world’s population has inadequate nutrition. Why Soils Are Important ?
  25. 25. For soil, the two main physical properties are color and texture. Color tells us something about the plant nutrients that are found in the soil. Texture determined by the size of particles in the soil, affects the soil’s ability to hold water and thereby sustain plant growth
  26. 26. Soil Color The most obvious property when looking at soil is its color Geologist officially recognize over 170 different soil colors. But the most common color of soils are shades of black, brown, red and gray. Red soil
  27. 27. BLACK SOIL Also known as Regur or Black Cotton soil. Dark grey to Black in color. High clay content. Highly moist retentive. Develops cracks in summer. Covers 5.4 lakh sq. km. Highly suitable for cotton. Rich in iron, lime, calcium,Magnesium,carbonates, and alumina.
  28. 28. RED SOIL Formed due to weathering of old crystalline rocks. More sandy and less clayey. Rich in iron, small amount of Humus. Poor in phosphorus, nitrogen and lime. Slightly acidic and do not retain moisture. 3.5 lakhs sq.km area. Porous and Friable.
  29. 29. BROWN SOIL Latin word meaning brick. Formed under high temperature and rainfall with wet and dry spell. Silica is leached due to high rainfall. Remnants of iron and aluminum oxides left behind is know as Laterite. Brown to Yellowish color. Becomes hard when exposed to atmosphere. Used as building material.
  30. 30. DESERT SOIL Contains soluble salts. Originated by Mechanical disintegration & wind deposit. Porous and coarse. 90% sand & 5% clay. Rich in Nitrates & Phosphates. Poor in Nitrogen & Humus. Friable, sandy & low moist content. 1.4 Lakh sqkm.
  31. 31. SALINE & ALKALINE SOIL Contains salts like Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium. Infertile, unfit for cultivation. Sandy to loamy in texture. Areas: Parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, U.P & Maharashtra.
  32. 32. Soil texture however, not color, is the singlemost important physical property of the soil. Knowing the soil texture alone will provide information about: • 1) how easily water flows through it • 2) its water holding capacity • 3) how well plants will grow in it
  33. 33. Soil Profile- Layers