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VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN SHARADA Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
Violence against Women“Any act of gender-based violence that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life." United Nation’s General Assembly definition, 1993
Forms/Types of Gender Based violence Domestic Sexual Physical Cultural Religious Socio – economic Patriarchy Family The factors that promote GBV form the basis of the form they take. They are promulgated by the agents of the society who include custodian of culture, media, religious leaders, discriminatory legislations, economic dependency, myths among others.
Family Violence The most common and perverse manifestation of violence against women is that which is inflicted in their most intimate environments, in surroundings that are supposed to welcome, cultivate, develop and bring out the best in human beings – the family
Situation of violence against women in India Gender discrimination, including physical, sexual, motional and economic violence, son preference, unequal resource distribution and unequal decision- making power (in both private and public spaces) Caste discrimination, especially (but not restricted to) women from specific castes Communal violence against women Neo-economic policies impacting women’s lives in diverse ways (specific kinds of jobs for women, market impacting men leading to increasing violence against women
Effects of Family Violence on Women’s Lives Life with a violent partner can have physical, social, emotional and psychological effects on women, in both the short and long term. This results in lower self-esteem, loss of confidence in themselves and others, isolation, depression, and suicidal tendencies.
Family Violence and its Impact on Children Women who are victims of violence and who suffer effects on their health and physical, mental and emotional condition will have more difficulty giving their children the appropriate attention, affection and care. Witnessing violence leaves children very scared, distressed and anxious about their own safety and that of their mother and siblings. Around 60% of children who live with an abused mother are or will be directly abused by their mother’ s aggressor.
Contd.. Children who experience family violence also develop coping strategies. One of the most common strategies is skipping school, which always exposes them to other risks. Other coping strategies include alcohol and drug use, involvement in street fights, and self destructive behaviors. Studies show that children who are abused are more likely to suffer psychiatric disorders in adulthood, and reproduce and/or become victims of violent behavior.
Literacy rate among male and female in rural and urban India Residence Sex 2001 2011 Change in percent Rural Male 70.70 78.57 +7.87 Female 46.13 58.75 +12.62 Urban Male 86.27 89.67 +3.4 Female 72.86 79.92 +7.06 Source: Census of India 2011
Violence against WomenNFHS 3: 1 in 5 women ( 20%) face domestic violence from theirhusbands (global statistics between 20-50%)The National Crimes Record Bureau (2007): total crime againstwomen has increased by 12.5% from 2006From 2006-2007, there was a 6.2% increase in rates of casesfiled under dowry “deaths” (NCRB 2007)
Cases of Violence in INDIA BANGALORE: Sexual harassment at the work place is rampant but no one talks about it -- 17% of working women in major cities have admitted to it. However, most of these women said the harassment wasnt physical. These findings are part of the survey, Sexual Harassment at Workplaces in India 2011-2012, done by Oxfam India during a workshop at the India Islamic Cultural Centre.
CONTD.. "Most women faced incidents that were non-physical. 66 of the 400 respondents faced a cumulative of 121 incidents of sexual harassment. About 102 of the 121 incidents were reported to be non-physical, whereas the remaining 19 incidents were physical," the report said. It added: "While 87% of the general population and 93% of working women respondents reported awareness of sexual harassment of women at workplace, a majority of the victims didnt resort to any formal action against the perpetrators. The top three industries unsafe for women are labourers (29%), domestic help (23%) and small-scale manufacturing (16%)."
CONTD.. As m any as 17 per cent of working wom in India have en experienced sexual harassm at their workplace, ent The survey was conducted in Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Lucknow and Durgapur by Oxfam India and the S ocial and R ural R esearch Institute. "About 17 per cent of working women in India feel that they have experienced acts of sexual harassment at workplace, indicating a high incidence of sexual harassment among working women from both the
Laws under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) Dowry Prohibition Act: any property or valuable (direct or indirect) given before, at or after the marriage Section 304B: Death of a woman within 7 years of her marriage Section 498A: When husband or his family subjects woman to cruelty (“intentional” behaviour that causes serious injury or harassment for dowry) Section 376: Rape law Section 294: Obscene acts and songs Section 354: Intent to outrage a woman’s modesty
International Day For Elimination Of Violence Against Women NOVEMBER 25, 2012
Protection of Women against Domestic Violence Act (PWDVA) 2005: highlights Rights-based (civil) law Advocates the right to live with dignity First law in India to define DV in a comprehensive way Legal right to live a life free of violence Government accountable to stop DV Emergency orders to stop DV (right to residence, protection orders)
Millennium Development Goals India The overall goal of the 2008-2012 MDGs Country Programme is to advance the fulfillment of the rights of all women and children in India to survive and thrive, develop, participate and be protected by reducing social inequalities based on gender, caste, ethnicity or region.
State initiatives in IndiaPolice initiatives to introduce a more rights-based approach to women’s issues (gendertraining of their personnel and the Parivartan programme of the Delhi Police)Government schemes for the girl childInstitutionalizing safety of women and girls: the Delhigovernment initiativesChanging policy into law – initial stages: sexual harassment at theworkplace guidelines and child sexual abuse draft bill
Concluding RemarkFamily violence is part of an extensive range ofviolent acts that occur in the private and publicspheres, committed mainly by men, and whoseprincipal victims are women and children.Violence against women, particularly at the handsof their partners, is a serious human rightsviolation, and an obstacle to the development ofdemocratic societies.
CONTD.. F amily violence limits or hinders women’s full exercise of their rights. Therefore, addressing this problem will always require policies and actions to which states are actively committed. F amily violence will always have a devastating effect on the lives of children, since it is an experience of brutal isolation for them, and asking for help can be a difficult, solitary exercise. T issue of family violence must be addressed from a gender- he based perspective, especially with children and starting at a very early age – working with them to build new gender references that are equitable and democratic.