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Pheromone IN INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT

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Pheromone IN INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT

  1. 1. PHEROMONE IN INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT Presented by, RAKESH KR. MEENA Dept. Of Agricultural Entomology, College OF AGRICULTURE, ALLAHABAD.
  2. 2. Out line Of seminar Principle of behavioral control Introduction Classification Pheromone traps Mode of pheromone application Advantages Conclusion
  3. 3. PrinCiPle Of PHerOmOnal COntrOl Aim at studying the behavior regulating chemicals and exploiting them for insect pest control.
  4. 4. Introduction Pheromone Is a chemical or mixture of chemical released by an organism to outside (environment) that cause specific reaction in a receiving organisms in same species. • Karlson and Butenandt coined the term Pheromone ,1959. • also called as ectoharmones. • Pheromones – Exocrine in origin. • -volatile in nature serving as chemical means of communication.
  5. 5. Classification of Semoichemicals K.P. Srivastava(2005)
  6. 6. SEX PHEROMONE Represent diverse assemblage of compounds. Commonly released by females. Out of 150 species, 100 species of females and 50 species of male produces pheromones. Female sex pheromone is important than male. Ayyar T.V.R.(1963)
  7. 7. Insect Name of Pheromone Chemical structure Bombyx mori Bombykol 10,12 Hexa-decadien 1-ol Porthetria dispar Gyplure 1 Hexal-12-Hydroxy-3 Dodisenile acetate Honey bee(Apis spp.) Queen substance 9.0x0-trans-2-Decenoic acid Periplanata americana ---- 2,2 Dimethyl-3-iso propelidine cyclo proply propionate Mad fly Singlure 2,3 secondary, Butyle 4 chloro 2 methyl hexane Mad fly Trimedlure 2,3 Ter.Butyl. Oriental fruit fly Methyl eugenol 1 Alil 1,2-Diemethoxy Benzene. Carda cautella --- 9,12 tetra decadien 1- ol acetate Pectinophora gossypiella --- 10-prophy-trans 5,9 tridecadien 1-ol-acetate Porthetria dispar --- D-10-acetoxy-cis 7-hexa decen-1-ol. CHemiCal struCture Of sex PHerOmOnes
  8. 8. Insects producing alarm pheromones Hornet wasp Honey bees
  9. 9. Leaf cutting ants ( Atta texana ) Insects Producing Trail Pheromone
  10. 10. Allelo-chemicals.  ALLOMONES Advantageous to the releaser.  EX-Defensive secretions of insects  KAIROMONES  Advantageous to recipient.  EX. Male sex pheromone in bug.  SYNOMONE endocrine secretion of hymenopterans frequently functions simultaneously both as an allomone and kairomone
  11. 11. PHerOmOne PrODuCinG GlanDs Ectodermal in origin. pheromone appeared under the control of harmone released by Corpora allata . Open and release their products outside called as “exocrine glands”. Present in any part of body. a) Galleria mellonella- wing pad b) Almond moth – gland of third abdominal segment. c) Cockroach – tergal gland Mayer (1992)
  12. 12. effeCtiVe DistenCe fOr PHerOmOne aPPliCatiOn Marked male moths were used. They can call mate from hundred feet away. Attracted to the tray baited with female sex pheromone for a distence as long as 2 miles in Gypsy moth. Lesser peach borer mates attracted from 50 ft distance. Jacobson(1989)
  13. 13. TIME OF RELEASE OF PHEROMONE OF INSECT : Depends upon weather and time of day. Grape beetle Lobasia botrana release pheromone at evening. Queen honey bee release the pheromone continuously for male honey bees 5-7 days. Trichoplusia ni release 1 a.m. to 5 a.m. Siddiqui(1989)
  14. 14. PHEROMONE RECEPTION Three parts involved. 1) Exocrine glands. 2)Medium. (air or water) 3)Pheromone receptors. Receptor should be olfactory (smell), or gustatory (taste). Antenna often undergo a marked sexual dimorphism. Jacobson (1989)
  15. 15. Sexual dimorphism in antennae of Daneus sp. moth
  16. 16. PLASTIC MOTH TRAPPLASTIC MOTH TRAPFUNNEL TRAPFUNNEL TRAP DELTA TRAPDELTA TRAP NOMATE TRAPNOMATE TRAP DIFFERENT PHEROMONE TRAPS
  17. 17. SEX PHEROMONES TRAPS TO DETECT AND DESTROY COTTON BOLLWORMS
  18. 18. To ensure the effectiveness of pheromone traps.. • Ascertain the quality of lure. • Ascertain the quality of pheromone. • Install the trap at right time. • Install the trap at straight stick/log. • Take care of the polythene sleeve. • Replace damaged sleeve and Maintain proper distance between traps. • Maintain proper height of the traps. • Replace lure timely.
  19. 19. Percent of Z,Z isomer Mean catches / week Mean 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 20 38.25 14.50 21.0 6.50 18.0 13.0 18.54 30 31.25 15.25 13.0 7.25 17.0 12.50 6.04 40 1.10 1.25 1.75 1.0 2.0 2.50 1.67 50 9.75 2.25 3.50 1.75 2.0 1.25 3.42 60 144.75 90.25 26.0 37.75 35.75 27.25 60.29 70 59.75 12.75 17.5 5.75 8.25 7.75 18.63 80 21.50 11.50 17.0 3.50 4.0 7.75 10.20 Mean 43.82 121.11 13.6 9.07 12.43 10.29 -- Table 1 : Response of male pink bollworm moths to different ratios of Z, Z and Z,E isomers of Gossyplure Karuppuchamy and Balasubramanian
  20. 20. *Heliture Control (Hexane) *Spodolure Control Mean cumulative visit 10.84 7.34 2.01 2.16 Mean percentage 15.01 7.22 10.01 9.96 Table 2 : Response of T. chilons in a Y shaped olfactometer Padmavathi and Pual (1996)
  21. 21. Table 3 : Incidence Of bollworms and yield in the experimental plot during 2004 at Raichur Treatment Fruiting bodies damaged (%) Good open bolls / plant Bad open bolls / plant Yield Q / ha Kairomone plot 21.34 22.12 8.20 22.44 Treated control plot 26.84 18.12 12.22 20.12 Untreated control plot 48.44 11.44 26.48 13.15 CD(P=0.05) 2.44 2.55 3.65 4.34 Bhaktvatslam N.et al. 2002
  22. 22. Table 4 : Incidence of sucking pests in kairomone treatment during 2002 at Dharwad Treatment Aphids (No. / 7 plants) Leafhoppers (No. / 7 plants) Pre- treatment After first spray After second spray Pre Harvest count Pre- treatment After first spray After second spray Pre harvest count Kairomone plot 67.57 58.14 27.29 11.00 11.14 9.00 5.57 3.85 Treated contro l plot 68.71 45.29 42.43 28.14 9.85 7.43 6.71 5.85 Untreated contro l plot 67.00 72.86 81.86 130.29 10.43 10.8 5 11.57 12.43 Bhaktvatslam N.et al. (2002)
  23. 23. Period of observation No. of moth catches/trap Fruit damage% 1st week of Oct 0.00 0.00 2nd week of Oct 0.00 0.00 3rd week of Oct 0.00 0.00 4th week of Oct 0.00 0.00 1st week of Nov 1.00 4.55 2nd week of Nov 0.00 4.76 3rd week of Nov 2.00 3.80 4th week of Nov 2.00 3.30 1st week of Dec 1.00 4.76 2nd week of Dec 2.00 0.53 3rd week of Dec 0.00 1.41 4th week of Dec 2.00 3.23 Average 0.83 2.19 Table 5: Moths of L. orbonalis Catches in pheromone trap and fruit damage in brinjal (2005-2006) JAU, Junagadh Anonymous (2005)
  24. 24. Pheromone Trap to Trap adult of Lymantria Spp
  25. 25. Treatment 1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th wee k Mean Yellow pan trap with 60% bait 118.50 1379.50 1261.0 728.50 1295.13 Black pan trap with 60% bait 1215.0 1054.25 799.00 658.25 931.63 Red pan trap with 60% bait 1385.25 948.0 699.50 533.00 833.94 Delta trap with 60% bait 271.00 276.75 290.25 266.0 276.19 Delta trap with 70% bait 265.25 239.0 245.75 177.75 231.94 Mean 989.75 779.50 653.10 472.70 -- Table 7 : Mean catches male pink bollworm moths in different traps Karuppuchamy and Balasubramanian (1990)
  26. 26. Pheromone Trap to Trap adult of Dacus spp.
  27. 27. Table 8 : Showing the effect of age on the perception of sex pheromone by the male D. obliqua Age of males Attraction of males Test Control Average Percentage Average Percentage 0-9hrs 0 0 0 0 12hrs 1.4 35.0 0 0 18hrs 2.8 70.0 0 0 24hrs 3.1 77.5 0 0 2day 3.2 80.0 0 0 3day 2.7 67.5 0 0 4day 2.1 52.5 0 0 5day 1.9 47.5 0 0 6day 2.0 5.0 0 0 7day 1.7 42.5 0 0 8day 1.2 30.0 0 0 9day 0.7 17.5 0 0 Siddiqi (1988)
  28. 28. Table 9 : Showing the attraction of male D. obliqua towards the female sex pheromone at different hours of clock Time Attraction of males Test Control Average Percentage Average Percentage 7.0am 1.0 25.0 0 0 10.0am 0.0 0 0 0 1.0pm 0.0 0 0 0 4.0pm 0.0 0 0 0 7.0pm 0.0 0 0 0 10.0pm 0.0 0 0 0 1.0am 3.3 82.5 0 0 4.0am 3.0 75.5 0 0 Siddiqi (1988)
  29. 29. Table 10 : Catches of C. suppressalis and S. incertulas males captured by water traps baited with each SM1-5 lure in 1998 Species No.of catehces per traps per week (mean) SM1 SM2 SM3 SM4 SM5 Over-wintering generation C. Suppressalis 207.6 138.2 239.8 66.8 151.2 S. incertulas 21.8 19.8 13.2 9.6 9.4 Total 229.4 158.0 253.0 76.4 160.6 First generation C. Suppressalis 103.7 68.4 137.2 36.4 71.7 S. incertulas 25.8 28.4 22.9 13.8 14.5 Total 129 96.8 157 50.2 86.2 Su and Sheng, (2004)
  30. 30. Table 11 : The catches of C. Suppressalis and S. incertulas in traps baited with 4 pheromone lures (CL, SM1, SM3, and SL) during 1999-2001. Test year Species No.of catehces per traps per week CL SM1 SM3 SL 1999 C. Suppressalis 40.8 42.6 41.3 32.6 S. incertulas 74 10.6 12.5 11.6 Total 48.2 53.2 53.8 44.2 2000 C. Suppressalis 24.9 23.2 27.5 14.9 S. incertulas 23.8 38.1 34.9 37.5 Total 48.7 61.3 62.4 52.4 2001 C. Suppressalis 87.8 106.8 96.6 62.1 S. incertulas 13.4 19.1 20.8 19.8 Total 101.2 125.9 117.4 81.9 Su and Sheng, (2004)
  31. 31. ACTUAL PROPERTIES OF PHEROMONE • 10-20 Large number of carbon atoms. • High molecular weight 180-300 Daltons. (Narrow specificity and high potency depends). • Diffusibility decreases with increase in molecular weight. • Biological activity detected by field test, male attraction and EAG.
  32. 32. Mode of Pheromone Application • A) Micro encapsulation method • B) Hollow fiber method • C) Pheromone baited traps • D) Pheromone Dispensers Michereff et al (2000)
  33. 33. Pheromone Dispenser for cotton bollworm
  34. 34. MANAgEMENT WITH PHEROMONES
  35. 35. CONTROL WITH SEx PHEROMONES. Can be utilized by two ways :- A) Population survey. B)Behavioural manipulation. a) Stimulation of normal approach response. b) Disruption of chemical communication. Yasuda (1999)
  36. 36. ManageMent With aggregate PheroMone  Used on insect to aggregate and attack wrong host plant  Logs infested with bark beetle ( Dendroctonus spp. ) were tied to unsuitable host tree  Attract to infesting insects.  Attack on that and died with starvation
  37. 37. ManageMent With alarM PheroMones Aphids threatened by predators , releases alarm pheromones and stop feeding then move away by site Aphids there wild behaviour escape may even drop from plant so effective in acting And alarm pheromone spread .
  38. 38. ManageMent With alarM PheroMones bean aphid green peach aphid
  39. 39. Species Trap Types Location Common names Pheromone type Wks. Spacing Lasioderma serricorne NS, PP, PC LL Floor, Shelf, Cigarette beetle female sex 8 5-15m Sitotroga cerealella NS, LL Floor, Shelf Angoumois grain moth female sex 8 5-15m Trogoderma granarium NS, PP, LL Floor, Shelf Khapra beetle female sex 10 5 – 15 m Rhyzopertha dominica NS, PC, Cone Shelf, Eye Level, Grain Lesser grain borer male aggregation 8 5 – 15 m Sitophilus oryzae PC, PP, Cone, Shelf, Floor, Grain Rice weevil male aggregation 4 2 – 5 m Management of Store Grain Pests Sharma and Kirti Sharma (1988)
  40. 40. PheroMone Products (BY wefco Africa CO.)
  41. 41. Cost of Different Protection Measures Protection measures Cost of protection (Rs./ha) Insecticide application 1 Grannule + 2-3 spray 500-2000 Trichocard @ 2 lakh /ha for 6 wks (Rs. 50/20000) 3000 Pheromone trap @ 20/ha (Rs. 30-35/trap) 600-750 JAU, Junagadh Anonymous (2005)
  42. 42. ADVANTAGES Minute quantity required. Non pollutant and ecological acceptable. Species specific. Labour saving. Easy monitoring of pest population. Best suited in IPM.
  43. 43. Pheromone Used For • Monitoring insect population. • Control of urban pests. • Monitor movement of exotic pests. • Mass trapping of insects from breeding and feeding potential. • Disruption in mating of insect population.
  44. 44. Conclusion • Pheromones are eco-friendly and economically based IPM. • Greatest use as lure for moth to trap. • Widely used for decision support usually with threshold for interventions using broad spectrum insecticide. • Used effectively only at low population density. • Pheromones of all pests to be investigated with greater efforts. • New trapping system need to ensure lure longevity and trap efficiency.

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