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INTRODUCTION TO A.I.
EVOLUTION OF A.I.
BRANCHES OF A.I.
APPLICATIONS OF A.I.
CONCLUSIONS ON A.I.
W AT IS A.I. ?
A.I. is a branch of computer science that studies the
computational requirements for tasks such as perception,
reasoning and learning and develop systems to perform those
The field of Artificial intelligence strives to understand and
build intelligent entities
M/C can think and
act like human
Some thinking like features
can be added to M/C
URING T ST
* Proposed by Alan Turing(1950), a British Computer
* Intelligence is defined as the ability to achieve human level
performance in all cognitive tests, sufficient to fool a human
* The test was devised in response to the question,” Can
a computer think ?” .
* Result was +ve if interrogator can not tell if responses
are coming from the M/C or Human.
* A.I is a branch of computer
sciences dealing with symbolic,
Nonalgorithic-Methods of problem
* AI works with pattern matching methods which attempt to
describe objects , events or processes in terms of their
qualitative features and
hat is Intelligence ?
To respond to situations very flexibly.
To make sense out of ambiguous or contradictory messages.
To recognize relative importance of different elements of
To find similarities between situations despite difference
To draw distinctions between situations despite similarities
which may link them.
1943 – McCulloh and Pitts, Boolean circuit model of
1950 – Turing’ s computing machine and intelligence.
1950’ s – Early AI programs including Samuel’ s checker
program, Newell and Simon’ s logic theorist, Gelisnters
1956 – Dartmouth conference.
1952-69 – “Look, Ma, no hands!” era.
1958 – McCarthy moves to MIT, LISP was born.
1965 – Robinson’s complete algorithm for logical reasoning.
1966-74 – AI discovers computational complex.
1969-79 - Early development in knowledge based systems.
1980-88 : Expert system industry booms.
1988-93 : Expert system industry busts.
1985-88 : Neural networks return to popularity.
: Agents… Agents… Agents.
Facts about the world have to be represented in
some way. Usually languages of mathematical logic are
Common Sense, Knowledge and Reasoning
This is an era in which AI is farthest from
human level. While there has been considerable
progress, e.g. in development systems of non monotonic
reasoning and theories of action
APPLICATIONS OF A.I.
Natural Language Processing (NLP).
An Expert System is a computer program designed to act
as an expert in a particular domain (area of expertise).
Domain of E.S.
hases in E
Expert systems currently are designed to assist experts,
not to replace them, They have been used in medical
diagnosis, chemical analysis, geological explorations etc.
The goal of N is to enable people and computers to
communicate in a natural (humanly) language(such as,
English) rather than in a computer language.
The field of N is divided in 2 categories
Natural Language understanding.
Natural Language generation.
The primary interactive method of
communication used by humans is not reading and
writing, it is speech.
The goal of speech recognition research is to
allow computers to understand human speech. So that
they can hear our voices and recognize the words we
It simplifies the process of interactive
communication between people and computers, thus
it advances the goal of NLP.
People generally use vision as their primary
means of sensing their environment, we generally see
more than we hear, feel or smell or taste.
The goal of computer
vision research is to give computers
this same powerful facility for
understanding their surrounding.
Here A.I helps computer to
understand what they see through
A Robot is a electro-mechanical
device that can by programmed to
manipulator designed to move materials,
parts, tools, or specialized devices
through variable programmed motions
for performance of variety of tasks.
An ‘ inte llig e nt’ robot includes
some kind of sensory apparatus that
allows it to respond to change in it’ s
The day is not far when you will just sit back in your
cozy little beds and just command your personal
Robot's to entirely do your ruts . He will be a perfect
companion for you. Just enjoy the Technology.
But wait, don’ t be happy. . !
It may end in other way too. Some day there will be a knock to
your door. As you open it, you see a large number of Robots
marching into your house destroying everything you own and
This is because ever since there
is an advantage in the Technology, it
attracts anti-social elements. This is true
for Robots too. Because now they will
have full power to think as human, even
as of anti-social elements. So think trice
before giving them power of Cognition.
In it’ s short existence, AI has increased understanding of the
nature of intelligence and provided an impressive array of
application in a wide range of areas. It has sharpened
understanding of human reasoning, and of the nature of
intelligence in general. At the same time, it has revealed the
complexity of modeling human reasoning providing new areas
and rich challenges for the future.