(Page 132) G. Prewriting: Using the Toulmin Model to Get Ideas for a Position Paper You have used the Toulmin model in Exercises B through F to read and analyze other people’s argument. Now use it to identify the main parts of an argument you will write. You may use the model to help you plan any argument paper. Use the Toulmin model as a prewriting exercise to help you develop ideas for a position paper. 1. Write the claim. All of the rest of your paper will support this claim. 2. Write the support. Write two or three subclaims you will develop in the paper. To help you do this, write the word “because” after the claim, and list reasons that support it. Also jot down ideas for specific support for these subclaims, such as examples, facts, opinions, or visual images that come from your reading of the essays or from your own experience. Student Paper #1 Sofia Diallou Professor Miller English 101 12 Feb. 2016 Toulmin Analysis of the “Road Trip” Cartoon Identifies claim and support. The reader has to infer the claim of this cartoon since it is not directly stated. The claim is that screens have replaced face-to-face conversation as the primary way people now interact with each other. The support is provided by the driver of the car, who notes how much lonelier car trips have become, and the other passengers, all of whom are focused on their smartphones and tablets. Analyzes warrant. The implied warrant is that screen-based technology makes us more isolated and disconnected from each other. Identifies backing. The backing is also implied and reinforced by the picture. It suggests that road trips are valuable opportunities for connection and conversation that many families are giving up. It also reinforces the common belief that interacting with screens is more appealing than interacting directly with people face-to-face. Infers rebuttal. No direct rebuttal or qualifier appears in this cartoon. I think, however, that this cartoon could be considered as a rebuttal to those who think that screen-based communication is always superior to face-to-face communication. As a rebuttal, this cartoon highlights the negative consequences of embracing screen-based communication. 3. Write the warrants. Decide whether to spell out the warrants in your paper or to leave them implicit so that the reading audience will have to infer them. 4. Decide on the backing. Assume that your classmates are your audience. They may be reading drafts of your paper. In your judgment, will some of them require backing for any of your warrants because they will not agree with them otherwise? If so, how can you back these warrants? Write out your ideas. 5. Plan rebuttal. Think about the positions others may hold on this issue. You identified some of these positions in your exploratory paper. Write out your strategies for weakening these arguments. 6. Decide whether to qualify the claim to make it more convincing to more people. Write one or more qualifiers that might work. Read what.