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Despondency means hopelessness, sadness or misery Vitality means energy Languid means unenergetic
Flank means edge or border Embellishes means to decorate or to present in a good manner
Paralinguistics : “with language”,
“accompanying speech”= how you are
1. a bridge between nonlinguistic and
“verbal” linguistics (e.g. grammar,
It consists of:
Pronunciation means to speak out sounds which are
In India we follow the “British Received Pronunciation”.
One should be careful enough to pronounce individual
sounds along with word stress.
One should not be taken into fancy that he/she know the
Below are some words that are commonly mispronounced
with their correct pronunciation.
Word Common Error Correct Pronunciation
Arctic Ar-tic Arctic
Gesture Ges-ture Jesture
3 tier 3 tyre 3 tear
Gigantic Jai-jan-tik Jai-gan-tik
The reason why pronunciation is important because
whenever we communicate we communicate
It strikes the listener directly in the face (the ears,
to be more precise). How good your pronunciation is
in general can be judged very quickly and an
opinion is formed automatically by anyone who
Modulation refers to the way we regulate, vary, or adjust the tone, pitch, and
volume of the sound or speaking voice.
Modulation of voice brings flexibility and vitality to your voice, and you can
express emotions, sentiments like impatience, careful planning, despondency,
suspicion, etc. in the best possible way.
If you do not pay special attention to the modulation of your voice, then your
voice becomes flat and you emerge as a languid speaker with no command over
Word stress also plays a role like in the example below:
Example: This company produces 50 cars everyday.
You can stress on this company or 50 cars.
The word stressed changes the emphasis of the statement.
Pace or Speech speed: It must always be at a speed
that the listener can understand. Put the
pace at that speed where the listener can
understand you properly.
Pitch or Depth of voice: Keep it at a level that is
comfortable for you and don’t strain your
Pause: Pauses should be given at required
intervals like where there is punctuation. It is
given to let the listener absorb your
information. It is given for emphasis and
Volume: Try and match your listener’s speech
volume, unless they are shouting. Try dropping
your volume so that they have to drop their
volume to hear you. Maintain your volume
according to the listener decrease or
increase (do not shout to increase it be loud).
Emphasis: Put emphasis by putting some
pressure or focus on the key words or
syllables in order to provide contrast to your
words bring out their desired meaning.
Inflection: Inflection means ups and downs of
words. In combination inflection links meaning
A pause is a short silence flanked by words.
A pause in speaking lets thelistener reflecton the message and digest
It helps you glide fromone thought to anotherone.
It embellishes your speechbecause it is a natural process to give a break.
1. Pauses help your audience understand you . Pauses allow you
to punctuate your spoken words, giving your listeners clues as
to when one phrase, one sentence, or one paragraph ends, and
the next begins. By subdividing speech into smaller
segments, pauses probably contribute a great deal to the
improvements of speech comprehension. The key takeaway is
that your audience doesn’t have the benefit of punctuation,
bolding, italics, bullets, and other formatting as in written
material. You’ve got to provide that, and pauses are a central
way to do it.
4. Pauses replace filler words.
Excessive use of filler words (um, er, ah) undermines your
credibility, and signals lack of knowledge, lack of preparation,
or lack of authenticity. Using pauses is one of the best ways to do
5. Pauses let your mind “catch up” to your mouth.
A speaker performs two tasks simultaneously:
The first task is internal, and involves thinking what to say (and what to do)
The second task is external, and involves vocally projecting those words, using
body language, and other interactions with an audience.
Ideally, the internal tasks build up a queue of words and actions for a speaker
to deliver, always having words ready when needed. Pausing gives the
advantage to the internal task, and helps your mind “catch up” to your mouth.