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Fermented sausages .pptx

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Fermented sausages .pptx

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Fermented sausages

Products are usually made from comminuted meat and fat, mixed with salt, curing agents, sugar and spices, and filled into casings, and are referred to as "fermented sausages".
It is one of the earliest form of meat processing.
Most of their characteristic sensory properties to the action of salt, curing agents, and proteolytic muscle enzymes only.
Fermented sausages have their longest tradition in Southern and Central Europe.
Salting and drying of unground meat was the traditional way of meat preservation in Germany and other European countries
Considering various criteria, such as moisture content, moisture : protein ratio (M : P), a w , surface treatment, meat and geographical region.
These parameters are mainly applied in Europe or in the United States.
In terms of shelf life and safety, moisture content alone is not sufficiently informative compared with a w and pH values.
More specifically, M : P ratio provides information about the extent of drying of the lean meat portion.

Considering various criteria, such as moisture content, moisture : protein ratio (M : P), a w , surface treatment, meat and geographical region.
These parameters are mainly applied in Europe or in the United States.
In terms of shelf life and safety, moisture content alone is not sufficiently informative compared with a w and pH values.
More specifically, M : P ratio provides information about the extent of drying of the lean meat portion.
Considering various criteria, such as moisture content, moisture : protein ratio (M : P), a w , surface treatment, meat and geographical region.
These parameters are mainly applied in Europe or in the United States.
In terms of shelf life and safety, moisture content alone is not sufficiently informative compared with a w and pH values.
More specifically, M : P ratio provides information about the extent of drying of the lean meat portion.


Fermented sausages

Products are usually made from comminuted meat and fat, mixed with salt, curing agents, sugar and spices, and filled into casings, and are referred to as "fermented sausages".
It is one of the earliest form of meat processing.
Most of their characteristic sensory properties to the action of salt, curing agents, and proteolytic muscle enzymes only.
Fermented sausages have their longest tradition in Southern and Central Europe.
Salting and drying of unground meat was the traditional way of meat preservation in Germany and other European countries
Considering various criteria, such as moisture content, moisture : protein ratio (M : P), a w , surface treatment, meat and geographical region.
These parameters are mainly applied in Europe or in the United States.
In terms of shelf life and safety, moisture content alone is not sufficiently informative compared with a w and pH values.
More specifically, M : P ratio provides information about the extent of drying of the lean meat portion.

Considering various criteria, such as moisture content, moisture : protein ratio (M : P), a w , surface treatment, meat and geographical region.
These parameters are mainly applied in Europe or in the United States.
In terms of shelf life and safety, moisture content alone is not sufficiently informative compared with a w and pH values.
More specifically, M : P ratio provides information about the extent of drying of the lean meat portion.
Considering various criteria, such as moisture content, moisture : protein ratio (M : P), a w , surface treatment, meat and geographical region.
These parameters are mainly applied in Europe or in the United States.
In terms of shelf life and safety, moisture content alone is not sufficiently informative compared with a w and pH values.
More specifically, M : P ratio provides information about the extent of drying of the lean meat portion.


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Fermented sausages .pptx

  1. 1. Fermented sausages SUBMITTED TO- Dr. RANJEETA BHARI SUBMITTED BY- RAHUL KUMAR ROLL NO. - 21011022 CLASS - M.Sc. (Hons.)BIOTECHNOLOGY SEMESTER - 3rd
  2. 2. Introduction  Products are usually made from comminuted meat and fat, mixed with salt, curing agents, sugar and spices, and filled into casings, and are referred to as "fermented sausages".  It is one of the earliest form of meat processing.  Most of their characteristic sensory properties to the action of salt, curing agents, and proteolytic muscle enzymes only.  Fermented sausages have their longest tradition in Southern and Central Europe.  Salting and drying of unground meat was the traditional way of meat preservation in Germany and other European countries.
  3. 3. Fermented Sausage Classification  Considering various criteria, such as moisture content, moisture : protein ratio (M : P), a w , surface treatment, meat and geographical region.  These parameters are mainly applied in Europe or in the United States.  In terms of shelf life and safety, moisture content alone is not sufficiently informative compared with a w and pH values.  More specifically, M : P ratio provides information about the extent of drying of the lean meat portion.
  4. 4. Sem-idry Fermented Sausages • These sausages differ greatly from dry sausages because of their pronounced tangy flavor from forced fermentation, resulting in lactic acid accumulation and a bulk of other products from fermentation breakdown. • In the United States, semidry sausages are fermented and cooked but are not usually dried . • In Europe they involve a broader range of products, most of them experiencing weight loss after fermentation because of cooking or hot smoking. • The final pH of semidry sausages is explicitly acid (4.7 to 5.2 – 5.4), with a lactic acid content of 0.5% to 1.3%; although they are often finely chopped and spreadable, many of them can be sliced, their moisture being 35% or higher.
  5. 5. Semi-dry Fermented Sausages • Semidry sausages are often smoked and slightly cooked by the heat used in the smokehouse, which occasionally reaches nearly 60°C for a strictly limited time. • After smoking, the sausages may be air dried for a relatively short time. • Compared with dry sausages, these products show higher a w values , so that a lower pH is needed for satisfactory protection against undesired microorganisms. • The use of starter cultures to produce semidry fermented sausages has proved to be particularly successful to keep their stability.
  6. 6. Dry Fermented Sausages  These products have a final pH ranging between 5.2 and 5.8, which is consistent with the lower lactic acid content (0.5% – 1.0%), a moisture lower than 30%.  The main difference with semidry fermented sausages is the long ripening and drying process, during which biochemical and physical changes occur that strongly influence their stability and safety.  Dry fermented sausages exhibit high shelf stability and can be kept without refrigeration.  The typical lower a w values of these products is achieved by air - drying in Mediterranean countries and by smoking in northern countries.
  7. 7. Dry Fermented Sausages • The long ripening process of dry fermented sausages promotes the growth of starter cultures, which contributes largely to their sensory quality, while safety is mainly ensured by drying and low a w . • dry fermented sausages are mainly made with pork meat, the formulation, degree of grinding, level of fermentation, smoking intensity, temperature of ripening, and type and size of casing will determine final product characteristics.
  8. 8. Ingredients and additives Meat • Fresh raw sausage mixture contains 50 - 70 % lean meat, that is mammalian (sometimes poultry) skeletal muscle tissue. • In beef muscle, post-mortem glycogenolysis is normally complete within 24 - 36 hours after slaughter whereas in pig muscle, it generally takes only a few hours. • If muscle pH drops to about 5.8 while the muscle temperature is still about 40°C , changes in muscle proteins render pork pale, soft, exudative (PSE). • In muscles that naturally contain little glycogen, or which have been depleted of their glycogen reserves by faulty treatment of the animals before slaughter , the final pH of the meat can be higher than 6.0
  9. 9.  In Germany, fermented sausages usually contain pork and beef while Hungarian and Italian salamis are manufactured from pork only, and Turkish from beef only, often in conjunction with fatty tissue from selected sheep breeds.  From a technologist's point of view, the suitability of a meat for fermented sausage production depends on its final pH, its water holding capacity and on the desired intensity of the curing colour.  Many butchers prefer meat from old animals (e. g., sows) for the manufacture of high- quality dry sausages.
  10. 10. Curing agents  Usually 2.4 - 3 % sodium chloride (NaCl) is added to the raw sausage mixtures, depending on the fat content in the formulation.  This water activity inhibits or delays the growth of many undesired or dangerous microorganisms and favours the development of lactobacilli, staphylococci and micrococci.  NaCl interacts with the myofibrillar structure and solubilizes proteins which form a sticky film around meat particles. Obviously, it contributes to the taste of meat products as well.  Nitrite - which is added to the mixture as nitrite curing salt, or which is formed from added nitrate by microorganisms.  Nitrite is considered the active curing ingredient responsible for the preservation of the food in combination with other ingredients, like salt.  Sodium nitrite or pottasium nitrite is added.
  11. 11. Spices and other additives • Ground pepper is usually present in all types of fermented sausages at the 0.2 - 0.3 % level. Other spices commonly used include paprika, garlic, mace, pimento and cardamon. Generally, air-dried sausages are more heavily spiced than smoked sausages. • Manganese is required by lactic acid bacteria for various enzyme activities including the key enzyme of glycolysis, fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase . • Some spices (garlic, rosemary, sage) contain powerful antioxidants and may thus extent the shelf life of dry sausages.
  12. 12. The manufacture of fermented sausages  Meat is chilled or partially frozen before it is comminuted in a meat grinder or cutter. Then, curing salt, carbohydrates and seasonings are mixed in.  The size of the particles in the sausage determines the product type.  It is important to remove as much oxygen from the mixture as possible before it is filled into casings because oxygen interferes with the formation of the desired colour and flavour.  This is achieved by using vacuum-cutter, vacuum-filling devices or by forming the mixture into a firm, round ball which is then placed into the filler. During filling, the temperature of the mixture should not exceed 2°C.  They must allow evaporation of water from the sausages and penetration of smoke, and they must follow the shrinkage of the sausage during drying. For undried products, synthetic casings are also used.  For dry sausages with long shelf life and for mould-ripened sausages, fermentation temperatures are usually below 22°C and semi-dry sausages are usually fermented at 22 - 26°C.  for American-style semidry sausages, even higher fermentation temperatures along with shorter fermentation times are applied.  The higher the temperature, the more rapid the fermentation, but the higher the risk of growth of undesired microorganisms.
  13. 13.  The sausages are smoked more heavily at the end of the fermentation period.  Smoke contains phenols, carbonyl compounds and organic acids of low molecular weight, and many of these constituents have antimicrobial activity.  Smoke is generated by the controlled combustion of wood 350 - 600°C.  Sausages are usually aged at 12 - 15°C. air velocity during ripening should ensure a slow and prevent excessive mould growth.  To obtain dry sausages, they are dried further to aw values of 0.90 or below, bacterial growth is inhibited, and surface condensation of water and mould growth is avoided, they may be stored at ambient temperature.  In the United States, sausages are frequently heated at the end of the fermentation: regulations require a core temperature of 58.3°C (137°F) if the presence of Trichinella cannot be excluded.
  14. 14. Starter Cultures Developed a mixed culture composed of lactobacilli and micrococci. Studies on the ecology of fermented sausages showed that LAB, mainly Lactobacillus and coagulase - negative cocci (CNC) represented by Micrococcaceae , are the two main bacterial groups technologically important in the fermentation and ripening of sausage.
  15. 15. L. sakei
  16. 16. • Staphylococcus , contribute to flavor by catabolizing amino acid and free fatty acids, and producing a range of volatile compounds that enhance cured meat aroma and play a role in color formation through their nitrate reductase. • Yeasts and molds also contribute to flavor through lipolytic and proteolytic activities and lactic acid degradation . • Pure cultures isolated from traditional fermented meats exhibit a diversity of metabolic activities that diverge strongly from industrial bulk starters.
  17. 17. The Growth of lactic acid starter culture in fermenting meat • The pH decreases faster with increasing temperature, and the optimum temperature for fermentation with P. cerevisiae is 43°- 45°C. • The action of the homo- fermentative organism produces an environment which is excellent for drying (around pH 5.2 to 5.3), and the action of salt and sugars with the lactic acid produces a safe and marketable summer sausage.
  18. 18. The Basic formulation of Turkish sucuk  55 kg beef meat with 15% fat  30 kg beef meat with 3% fat  10 kg tail fat (L4)  1.5 kg fresh garlic  1 kg cumin  0.5 kg paprika (hot)  0.3 kg paprika (sweet)  0.3 kg allspice  0.4 kg dextrose  0.5 kg black pepper  0.5 kg vegetable oil  2 kg Nitrite Curing Salt  Starter culture
  19. 19. Basic formulations for Greek dry salami  76 kg pork meat  24 kg pork back fat  2.5 kg salt  2.5 kg skim milk powder  1.5 kg sugars (malto dextrin)  0.3 kg mixed spices (black and  red pepper,  clove)  0.1 kg garlic  0.2 kg white wine  0.02 kg NaNO2  0.02 kg NaNO3  0.06 kg Na-ascorbate  Starter culture
  20. 20. Basic formulation for Hungarian Salami o 35 kg beef meat o 30 kg pork shoulder o 30 kg pork back fat o 2 kg Nitrite Curing Salt o 0.40 kg dextrose o 0.5 kg powdered garlic o 0.5 kg paprika (sweet) o 0.3 kg white pepper o Starter culture
  21. 21. FERMENTED SAUSAGE FORMULATIONS • PEPPERONI • Basic ingredients for 100 kg • 50 kg pork trimmings 30 kg beef chucks, hearts, cheeks 20 kg pork jowl • Characteristic seasoning formulae per 1 kg • 28.0 g nitrite salt for curing 0.5 g sodium or potassium nitrate 0.5 g chili 2.0 g allspice 1.5 g fenugreek 3.0 g ground pepper 4.5 g red pepper 1.5 g anise 10.0 g sugar 0.3 g peeled garlic 2.5 g dextrose • 30.0 g nitrite salt for curing 1.2 g monosodium glutamate 4.0 g pepper 2.0 g red pepper 0.2 g chili 3.5 g dextrose 0.2 g garlic • PORK AND BEEF CHORIZOS • Chorizos are a strongly hot spiced type of raw sausage, which can be sold and used as fresh (like merguez), semidry or dry sausages • Basic ingredients for 100 kg • 33 kg lean pork or lean beef 33 kg pork neck or beef flank 34 kg fat pork (jowl, belly, fat trimmings) or beef trimmings • Characteristic seasoning formula per 1 kg • 28.0 g nitrite salt for curing 0.4 g potassium nitrate 0.8 g sugar 1.0 g garlic, fresh 2.0 g red pepper 1.5 g chili 0.5 g glucono-delta-lactone
  22. 22. (Central european) The Netherlands Dutch semidry sausages are manufactured from pork and/or beef, and, in some products, cooked pork rind. The most popular Dutch products are fi nely chopped salami, Cervelat , Snijworst (with high fat content and rind added), Farmersmetworst (which is coarsely chopped), and chorizo (which is less spicy than the Spanish product). (Eastern european ) Poland A typical Polish sausage ( kielbasa ) is Polska , which is made from pork meat, stuffed in natural casings, ripened at a low temperature (6 ° C), and smoked. This semidry fermented sausage has a soft texture due to limited drying (total weight loss of 12% – 17%) and is eaten cooked (Pisula 2004 ). (Scandinavian ) Sweden Swedish Medwurst is made from pork meat and contains boiled potatoes, in addition to spices and seasonings. High fermentation temperatures (30 – 35 ° C) and smoke are applied. The sausages are often heat – treated after fermentation.
  23. 23. Some intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting microbial growth Intrinsic factors  pH Starter cultures used in dry sausage manufacturing process in the North of Europe produce sufficient amounts of lactic acid in order to decrease pH of meat to values 4.8-5.0. The acidification process of meat products should be slow, since a fast pH drop results in a massive protein denaturation that makes the product unacceptable.
  24. 24. • Meat has a pH value between 5.4-5.8 is suitable for the production of sucuk. • In the first 36 hours of ripening period, the pH should decrease to 5.3-5.4 and after 72 hours 4.9-5.0 interval is accepted . • Traditionally produced and marketed sucuk should have a pH value between 5.1-5.2 • Meat type • The quality of raw material directly affects the properties of final product. • Although normal meat is always the first choice of producers in the production, The higher the water content of the raw material, the faster the water releasing in the ripening chamber. • However the mix of PSE and normal meat are mostly used as raw material in fermented meat products. • In traditional sucuk production, water buffalo or calves are used in Turkey
  25. 25. Fat content • The fat content in most of the fermented meat products is between 25 to 45% in order to fulfill consumer expectations in different countries. • This value, for example, should be less than 40% for Turkish fermented sucuk. • Fat acts as a reservoir for flavour compounds and contributes to product texture and juiciness. • Sheep tail fat is generally used in sucuk production. • Beef tallow and beef kidney fat from beef can also be used in the production .
  26. 26. Extrinsic factors • Temperature • Temperature has a key role in every step. • According to the requirements of microorganisms, the producer has to choose right temperature values to support (in curing and fermentation steps) or prevent (in preparation and storing steps) microbial growth. • The temperature directly affects pH, water activity, microbial growth and texture of fermented sausages. • There is a strong correlation between temperature and ripening as well as drying .
  27. 27. Air flow • It is essential to control the temperature, the humidity and the velocity of the air flows surrounding the sausages, in order to ensure homogeneous conditions to all products under ripening. • Flow ripening chambers are used in industrial applications to maintain these controlled conditions. • These chambers, which are among the most widespread used for industrial applications, have a main upward air flow that is cyclically moved along the cell floor, ensuring the required average ripening homogeneity. • Casing type • Natural, collagen, fibrous or cellulose casings can be used in the production of fermented meat products.
  28. 28. Storing conditions • Storage conditions significantly affected the microflora, pH, weight loss, brine concentration, water activity and the production of certain compounds such as biogenic amines. • The colour of the product is also affected by these conditions. • For example, yellowness of the traditional Greek sausages has affected during storage according to the conditions of storage room. • It is reported that hazardous amounts of biogenic amines can arise in a product not stored in refrigerated conditions.
  29. 29. Public health aspects  Most fermented sausages are not heated during manufacture or prior to consumption,, at least in the last decade, they have a record of safety equal or even superior to other meats.  outbreaks of salmonellosis, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxicosis, and, recently, infections caused by enterohaemorrhagic strains of Escherichia coli have been traced back to fermented sausages.  measures to minimize these as well as other possible health hazards from the ingestion of fermented sausages. • Pathogens Hurdles  Staphylococcus aureus pH < 5.1; a w < 0.86; bacteriocins  Salmonella pH < 5.0; a w < 0.95; NaCl/NaNO2  Clostridium perfringes LAB (acid andbacteriocins  Escherichia coli (ECEH) LAB (acid)  Campylobacter jejuni LAB (acid)
  30. 30. References • https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273203736 • https://tf.unibl.org/wp- content/uploads/2017/10/Semidry-and-Dry-Fermented- Sausages.pdf • Lueckemanuscriptfermentedsausageswood1998.pdf • Google images
  31. 31. Thank you

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