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General anesthetics

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General anesthetics

  1. 1. Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe M. Pharmacy GENERAL ANAESTHETICS
  2. 2. SYLLABUS Halothane* Cyclopropane* Diethyl ether* Methohexital sodium Thiopental sodium Trichloroethylene
  3. 3. QUESTION 1. Define and classify general anaesthetics. Give structure and chemical name of halothane 2. Define & classify general Anaesthetics based on their route of administration. 3. Define “General Anaesthetics”. Draw structure and give chemical name of halothane 4. Write the difference between general anaesthetics and local anaesthetics 5. Name the two barbiturates used as “General anaesthetics”. Draw structure and Give chemical name of Phenobarbitone.
  4. 4. DEFINITION  the central nervous system depressant drugs  which bring about loss of all modalities of sensations  along with a reversible loss of consciousness. or General anesthetics are the central nervous system depressant drugs which bring about loss of all modalities of sensations along with a reversible loss of consciousness
  5. 5. DEFINITION  Anesthesia (an =without, aisthesis = sensation ) The drugs which produce reversible loss of all sensations and  consciousness “The drugs which produce reversible loss of all sensations and consciousness.”  Generally administered in order to induce or maintain general anesthesia to facilitate
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION
  7. 7. Stage-1 Analgesia • Start from beginning of anesthesia administration and • Last up to loss of consciousness, • Feels a dream like state, reflexes and respiration remains normal Stage-2 Stage of delirium • From loss of consciousness to beginning of irregular respiration. • Apparent excitement is seen. • Muscle tone increases. Jaws are tightly closed. Heart rate and blood pressure may rise. Stage-3 Surgical anesthesia • Extends from onset of irregular respiration to cessation of spontaneous breathing. • This has been divided into 4 planes • • Plane1:This plane ends when eyes become fixed • Plane 2: Loss of corneal and laryngeal reflexes • Plane 3:Pupil start dilating and light reflexe • Plane 4: Dilated pupil, decrease muscle tone ,BP • falls Stage-4 Medullary paralysis • Respiratory and vasomotor control ceases
  8. 8. STAGES OF ANAESTHESIA
  9. 9. STAGES OF ANAESTHESIA
  10. 10. STAGES OF ANAESTHESIA
  11. 11. Difference between Local & General Anesthesia Features General Anesthesia Local Anesthesia Definition General anaesthetics are the agents which bring about loss of all modalities of sensation, particularly pain, along with a reversible loss of consciousness. It may be defined as any substance applied topically or by localized injection or infiltration to dull or block pain sensation. Site of Action Central Nervous system Peripheral nerve Anesthesia produced on whole body Local Area (Site of Application) Consciousness Lost Nor lost Prefer for Major surgery Minor Surgery Care of vital organs Essential Not much needed Induced either by #Inhalation #Parenteral #Topical #Parenteral Risk Factor High Comparatively low Use in non Possible Not possible
  12. 12. HALOTHANE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoro ethane
  13. 13. HALOTHANE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Fluoro Bromo Ethane Chloro
  14. 14. HALOTHANE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is colorless volatile liquid. 2. It has chloroform like odor. 3. It is having sweet taste. 4. It is slightly miscible in water. 5. It is Miscible with alcohol, ether and chloroform. 6. It affected by light. Storage: It should be stored & distributed in air-tight brown bottles, stabilized by the addition of 0.01% thymol, and at 8°C to 15°C.
  15. 15. HALOTHANE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used as general anaesthetic. 2. It is the most potent anesthetic & is administered by inhalation. 3. Induction of anaesthesia by halothane is smooth & rapid, & does not cause irritation to the mucous membrane. Official preparation: # Halothane I.P, B.P, U.S.P Brand Names: Fluothane, Hypnothane, Fluothane
  16. 16. ADVANTAGES of HALOTHANE OVER ETHER 1. More potent than chloroform & ether 2. non-inflammable 3. Non explosive when mixed with oxygen. 4. Non irritating to skin and mucous membrane. 5. Not produce necrosis.
  17. 17. CYCLOPROPANE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Cyclopropane
  18. 18. CYCLOPROPANE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is Colorless gas. 2. It is having pungent taste and 3. It is having solvent hexane like odor. 4. It is highly flammable. 5. It is less miscible in water. 6. It is miscible in alcohol. Storage: It is stored in orange color painted metal cylinder kept in a cool room free from inflammable material. The shoulder should be stenciled with name or symbol “C3H6”. The name or symbol should be clearly stamped on the cylinder valve.
  19. 19. CYCLOPROPANE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used as general anaesthetic. Official preparation: # Cyclopropane I.P, B.P, U.S.P Brand Names: Cyclopropane
  20. 20. DIETHYL ETHER ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Diethylether
  21. 21. DIETHYL ETHER ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is occurs as a colorless liquid. 2. It is having a burning, sweetish taste. 3. It is having characteristic odor. 4. It is miscible in water. 5. It is miscible with alcohol, chloroform and benzene.
  22. 22. DIETHYL ETHER ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Storage: It is oxidized by atmospheric oxygen and is affected by light hence should be stored in well closed, light resistant container in a cool place. The label should bear  Very inflammable  Do not use near an open flame  Name and proportion of stabilizer added.  An antioxidant like propyl gallate or hydroquinone is added to prevent oxidation of ether to peroxides which are explosive and harmful.
  23. 23. DIETHYL ETHER ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used as general anaesthetic. Official preparation: # Diethyl ether I.P, B.P, U.S.P Brand Names: Ether anaesthetic
  24. 24. METHOHEXITAL SODIUM ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is White powder. 2. It is odorless. 3. It soluble in water. 4. Its solutions are alkaline. 5. hygroscopic powder Storage: It should be stored in well closed air tight container at cool place away from direct sunlight.
  25. 25. METHOHEXITAL SODIUM ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used as general anaesthetic. 2. It is an intravenously administered ultra-short acting barbiturate indicated for induction of anaesthesia. 3. It is also a hypnotic. Official preparation: # Methohexital I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Methohexital sodium I.P, B.P, # Methohexital sodium injection I.P, B.P, Brand Names:
  26. 26. THIOPENTAL SODIUM (Pentothol sodium) ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white crystalline powder. 2. It is having disagreeable odor. 3. It is soluble in water, and alcohol. 4. It is insoluble in ether and hexane. 5. It is hygroscopic 6. Its aqueous solution is alkaline to litmus. Storage: It should be stored in well closed air tightcontainer at cool place away from direct sunlight.
  27. 27. THIOPENTAL SODIUM ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used for basal anaesthesia. 2. It is used as anticonvulsant. 3. It also induces hypnosis. 4. It has been the most widely used for intravenous barbiturate anaesthetics Official preparation: # Thiopental sodium I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Thiopental sodium injection I.P, B.P, U.S.P Brand Names: Anesthal, Intraval Sodium, Pentone, Pentothal, Thiosal, Thipen
  28. 28. TRICHLOROETHYLENE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is colorless, or blue, mobile liquid. 2. It has chloroform like odor. 3. It is miscible in water. 4. It is miscible with alcohol, chloroform and ether. 5. It is non-flammable. 6. It is decomposes in presence of moisture and light, can be established with thymol. Storage: It should be stored in well closed air tight resistant container at cool place away from direct sunlight at temperature not exceeding 250C.
  29. 29. TRICHLOROETHYLENE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used as general anaesthetic. Official preparation: # Trichloroethylene I.P, B.P, U.S.P Brand Names: Trilene; Trimar
  30. 30. Any Question??? Thank you...

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