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Cholinergic agent

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Cholinergic agent

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Adrenergic Drugs-Adrenaline*, Noradrenaline, Isoprenaline*, Phenylephrine Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Ephedrine *, Pseudoephedrine.
Adrenergic Antagoinst-Tolazoline, Propranolol*, Practolol.
Cholinergic Drugs-Neostigmine*,Pyridostigmine, Pralidoxime, Pilocarpine, Physostigmine*.
Cholinergic Antagonists-Atropine*, Hysocine, Homatropine, Propantheline*, Benztrophine, Tropicamide, Biperiden.*

Adrenergic Drugs-Adrenaline*, Noradrenaline, Isoprenaline*, Phenylephrine Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Ephedrine *, Pseudoephedrine.
Adrenergic Antagoinst-Tolazoline, Propranolol*, Practolol.
Cholinergic Drugs-Neostigmine*,Pyridostigmine, Pralidoxime, Pilocarpine, Physostigmine*.
Cholinergic Antagonists-Atropine*, Hysocine, Homatropine, Propantheline*, Benztrophine, Tropicamide, Biperiden.*

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Cholinergic agent

  1. 1. Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe M. Pharmacy CHOLINERGIC DRUGS PARASYMPATHOMIMETICS
  2. 2. SYLLABUS Pilocarpine Neostigmine* Physostigmine* Pyridostigmine Pralidoxime
  3. 3. QUESTION 1. Define Cholinergic drugs. Write the uses of Pilocarpine and Physostigmine. 2. Define ‘Parasympathomimetics’. Give properties and uses of Pilocarpine. 3. Define and classify cholinergic drugs. Write the uses of Acetylcholine
  4. 4. DEFINITION agents that  mimic the action of acetylcholine or produce the effect of parasympathetic nerve stimulation The agents that mimic the action of acetylcholine or produce the effect of parasympathetic nerve stimulation are called as cholinergic agents or parasympathomimetic agents. E.g.:Pilocarpine, Neostigmine,
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION 1) DIRECT ACTING CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS : i) Esters of choline: - Acetylcholine ii) Alkaloids: - Pilocarpine 2)INDIRECT ACTING CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS Cholinergic inhibitors or anti cholinesterases:
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION 1. Choline esters: Acetylcholine, Methacholine, Carbachol 2. Cholinomimetic alkaloids: Muscarine, Pilocarpine, Arecholine 3. Cholinesterase inhibitors (Indirectly acting) A) Reversible Inhibitors- Physostigmine, Neostigmine, Pyridostigmine B) Irreversible Inhibitors- Organophosphates (Parathion, Malathion),
  7. 7. PILOCARPINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white crystalline powder. 2. It has odorless. 3. It is having faintly bitter taste. 4. It is very soluble in water. 5. It is hygroscopic. 6. It affected by light. Storage: It should be stored in well closed light resistant container at a cool place away from direct sunlight.
  8. 8. PILOCARPINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe USES: 1. It is used as cholinergic agonist. 2. It is used to treat a) As miotic (counteract mydriasis) b) To reduce intra ocular pressure in glaucoma. c) For diagnosis of tonic pupil. d) For accommodation of near vision of eye. e) To counteract anti cholinergic side effects( dryness of mouth, constipation and impaired vision).
  9. 9. PILOCARPINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Official preparation: # Pilocarpine I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Pilocarpine hydrochloride eye drops I.P, B.P Brand Names: Opthocarpine, Pilocar
  10. 10. NEOSTIGMINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe 3-(dimethyl carbamoyloxy) N, N, N- Trimethyl anilinium bromide
  11. 11. NEOSTIGMINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Dimethyl carbamoyloxy N, N, N- Trimethyl anilinium bromide
  12. 12. ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white crystalline powder. 2. It has odorless. 3. It is having bitter taste. 4. It is very soluble in water. 5. It affected by light and oxygen. Storage: It should be stored in well closed air tight light resistant containers at cool place away from direct sunlight. NEOSTIGMINE
  13. 13. NEOSTIGMINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe USES: 1. It is used as indirect acting parasympathomimetic agent. 2. It reduces the heart rate and lowers the blood pressure by peripheral vasodilatation. 3. It is used to promote expulsion of intestinal flatus before retinopathy. 4. It is used in the treatment of a) Myasthenia gravis b) Paralytic ileus. c) Post operative urinary retention Official preparation: # Neostigmine I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Neostigmine Injection I.P, B.P, # Neostigmine Tablet I.P, B.P, Brand Names: Prostigmine
  14. 14. PHYSOSTIGMINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe 1,2,3,3a,8,8a hexahydro-1, 3a, 8-trimethyl, 5-(methyl carbamoxyloxy) pyrrolo (2, 3,-b) indole
  15. 15. PHYSOSTIGMINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe methyl carbamoxyl oxy pyrrolo (2, 3,-b) indole methyl
  16. 16. PHYSOSTIGMINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is colorless crystals. 2. It has odorless. 3. It is having bitter taste. 4. It is sparingly soluble in water. 5. It affected by air & light. Storage: It is stored in well closed air tight light resistant containers at cool place away from direct sunlight.
  17. 17. PHYSOSTIGMINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe USES: 1. It is used as indirect acting parasympathomimetic agent. 2. It is used as miotic 3. It is used in treatment of a. glaucoma. b. Anti cholinergic drug poisoning c. Tricyclic anti depressant drug poisoning. d. Reversal of post operative over sedation e. Psychotropic and neurological disease. Official preparation: # Physostigmine I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Physostigmine eye drops I.P, B.P # Physostigmine injection I.P, B.P Brand Names: Eserine,
  18. 18. PYRIDOSTIGMINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white crystalline powder. 2. It is having bitter taste. 3. It is having characteristic odor. 4. It is very soluble in water. 5. It is affected by light. Storage: It is stored in well closed air tight container at a cool lace away from direct sunlight.
  19. 19. PYRIDOSTIGMINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used as indirect acting parasympathomimetic agent. 2. It reduces the heart rate and lowers the blood pressure by peripheral vasodilatation. 3. It is used to promote expulsion of intestinal flatus before retinopathy. Official preparation: # Pyridostigmine I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Pyridostigmine injection I.P, B.P # Pyridostigmine tablet I.P, B.P Brand Names: Mestion
  20. 20. PRALIDOXIME ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white to pale yellow crystalline powder. 2. It is having bitter taste. 3. It is odorless. 4. It is freely soluble in water. 5. It is affected by light. Storage: It is stored in well closed air tight container at a cool lace away from direct sunlight.
  21. 21. PRALIDOXIME ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used by combination with atropine for treatment of organophosphorus poisoning. Official preparation: # Pralidoxime I.P, # Pralidoxime Injection Brand Names: Actifed, Decdan, Oflomac-DX, Zoxan-D, Daksone, Zoxan-D, Pyricort, Pyrimon, Dexasone.
  22. 22. Any Question??? Thank you...

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