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Adrenergic agent

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Adrenergic Drugs-Adrenaline*, Noradrenaline, Isoprenaline*, Phenylephrine Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Ephedrine *, Pseudoephedrine.
Adrenergic Antagoinst-Tolazoline, Propranolol*, Practolol.
Cholinergic Drugs-Neostigmine*,Pyridostigmine, Pralidoxime, Pilocarpine, Physostigmine*.
Cholinergic Antagonists-Atropine*, Hysocine, Homatropine, Propantheline*, Benztrophine, Tropicamide, Biperiden.*

Adrenergic Drugs-Adrenaline*, Noradrenaline, Isoprenaline*, Phenylephrine Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Ephedrine *, Pseudoephedrine.
Adrenergic Antagoinst-Tolazoline, Propranolol*, Practolol.
Cholinergic Drugs-Neostigmine*,Pyridostigmine, Pralidoxime, Pilocarpine, Physostigmine*.
Cholinergic Antagonists-Atropine*, Hysocine, Homatropine, Propantheline*, Benztrophine, Tropicamide, Biperiden.*

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Adrenergic agent

  1. 1. Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe M. Pharmacy ADRENERGIC DRUGS SYMPATHOMIMETICS/ SYMAPATHETICS
  2. 2. SYLLABUS Adrenaline* Noradrenaline Isoprenaline* Ephedrine* Phenylephrine Salbutamol  Terbutaline Pseudoephedrine
  3. 3. QUESTION 1. Classify Adrenergic drugs. Draw structure of any one Catecholamine. 2. Classify Adrenergic drugs. Draw structure of Isoprenaline. 3. Classify Sympathomimetic agents. 4. What are catecholamines? Write the structure of two catecholamines. 5. Give structure, IUPAC and uses of ephedrine. 6. Give structure, chemical name and pharmacological uses of adrenaline.
  4. 4. DEFINITION Drugs that mimic the actions obtained as a result of stimulation of the sympathetic or adrenergic nerves. “Drugs that mimic the actions obtained as a result of stimulation of the sympathetic or adrenergic nerves are called Sympathomimetics.” E.g.:Adrenaline, Isoprenaline, Ephedrine
  5. 5. DEFINITION drugs that produce pharmacological effects like adrenaline or nor adrenaline or drugs which bring about stimulation of adrenergic nerves “The drugs that produce pharmacological effects like adrenaline or nor adrenaline or drugs which bring about stimulation of adrenergic nerves are called Sympathomimetics.”
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THEIR CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1. Catecholamines : Adrenaline, Nor-adrenaline, Isoprenaline 2. Non-Catecholamines : Phenylephrine, Salbutamol, Terbutaline, 3. Imidazoline derivatives : Naphazoline, Tetrahydrozolium
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THEIR CHEMICAL STRUCTURE 1)Catecholamines : Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, Isoprenaline, Phenylephrine 2)Non-Catecholamines a) Containing phenylethylamine skeleton with phenolic group: Salbutamol, Phenylephrine b) Containing phenylethylamine skeletonwithout phenolic hydroxy group : Ephedrine. c) Aliphatic amines : Cyclopentamine d) Imidazolidine derivatives :
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THEIR PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY 1. Vasoconstrictors (↑ B. P.): Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine), Dopamine, Ephedrine etc. 2. Cardiac stimulants: Dopamine, Adrenaline, Isoprenaline 3. CNS stimulants: Amphetamine 4. Smooth muscle relaxants: Adrenaline, Isoprenaline, salbutamol etc. 5. Drugs used in allergic reactions: Ephedrine 6. Local vasoconstrictor/ nasal decongestants: Phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine 7. Anorectics: Amphetamine, Phentermine.
  9. 9. CATECHOLAMINE  Catecholamines are class of aromatic amines which includes a number of neurotransmitters.  Such as epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and dopamine.  They have catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
  10. 10. CATECHOLAMINE Benzene with two hydroxyl side groups a side- chain amine
  11. 11. CATECHOLAMINE Benzene with two hydroxyl side groups a side- chain amine Benzene with two hydroxyl side groups A side-chain amine
  12. 12. ADRENALINE (EPINEPHRINE) ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe 1-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl) 2- methylamino ethanol
  13. 13. Ethanol 3,4- Dihydroxyphenyl Methyl amino
  14. 14. ADRENALINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Methyl amino Ethanol 3,4- Dihydroxyphenyl
  15. 15. ADRENALINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white or creamy white microcrystalline powder. 2. It has odorless. 3. It is having slightly bitter taste. 4. It is very soluble in water. 5. It is practically insoluble in alcohol. 6. It is readily soluble in solutions of alkali hydroxide and mineral acids. 7. It affected by air. Storage: It can be oxidized by air or oxygen to get pink or red color complex. It darkens on exposure to light and air; hence it is stored in well closed air tight light resistant containers.
  16. 16. ADRENALINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe USES: 1. To relieve bronchial spasm in acute attacks of asthma. 2. It is used to treat heart block. 3. It is used to increase blood pressure in treatment of hypotension. 4. Intra venous administration of Adrenaline is used to treat acute circulary collapse or cardiac arrest. 5. Treatment of allergic disorder. 6. Treatment of superficial bleeding due to its vasoconstriction effect. 7. Added to local anesthetic to prolong the duration of effect.
  17. 17. ADRENALINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Official preparation: # Adrenaline I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Adrenaline eye drops I.P, B.P # Adrenaline Solution I.P, B.P # Adrenaline Tartarate I.P, B.P # Adrenaline & Atropine I.P, B.P Brand Names: Inhalant, Medicreme
  18. 18. ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white or creamy white microcrystalline powder. 2. It has odorless. 3. It is having slightly bitter taste. 4. It is very soluble in water. 5. It is practically insoluble in alcohol. 6. It is readily soluble in solutions of alkali hydroxide and mineral acids. 7. It affected by air. Storage: It can be oxidized by air or oxygen to get pink or red color complex. It darkens on exposure to light and air; hence it is stored in well closed air tight light resistant containers. NOR-ADRENALINE (NOR-EPINEPHRINE)
  19. 19. NOR-ADRENALINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe USES: 1. It is used to treat heart block or cardiac arrest. 2. To Control superficial hemorrhage of nose & throat. 3. Used with local anesthetics to prolong local anesthetic effect. 4. It is used in peripheral vasomotor collapse. 5. It is used to maintain blood pressure in acute hypotensive states. Official preparation: # Nor-adrenaline I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Nor-adrenaline Injection I.P, B.P, # Sterile strong Nor-adrenaline I.P, B.P,
  20. 20. ISOPRENALINE (ISOPROTERENOL) ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe 1-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl) 2-isopropylamino ethanol
  21. 21. ISOPRENALINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Isopropylamino Ethanol 3,4- Dihydroxyphenyl
  22. 22. ISOPRENALINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white microcrystalline powder. 2. It has odorless. 3. It is having bitter taste. 4. It is freely soluble in water. 5. It is practically insoluble in alcohol. 6. It affected by air & light. Storage: It is stored in well closed air tight light resistant containers at cool place away from direct sunlight.
  23. 23. ISOPRENALINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe USES: 1. To relieve bronchial spasm in acute attacks of asthma. 2. It is used to treat chronic bronchitis. 3. It is used to treat cardiotoxic shock states, heart block and severe bradycardia. Official preparation: # Isoprenaline I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Isoprenaline hydrochloride injection I.P, B.P # Isoprenaline aerosol inhalation I.P, B.P # Slow release Isoprenaline tablet I.P, B.P Brand Names:
  24. 24. EPHEDRINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe 2-methylamino 1(phenyl) Propan-1-ol
  25. 25. EPHEDRINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Methylamino Propanol Phenyl
  26. 26. EPHEDRINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white crystalline powder. 2. It is having bitter taste. 3. It is odorless. 4. It is sparingly in water. 5. It is affected by light. Storage: It is stored in well closed air tight container at a cool place away from direct sunlight.
  27. 27. EPHEDRINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used to treat a) Asthma. b) Nocturnal enuresis in children. c) Nasal Congestion. d) Nacrolepsy. Official preparation: # Ephedrine I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Ephedrine tablet I.P, B.P, # Ephedrine elixir I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Ephedrine nasal drops I.P, B.P, U.S.P Brand Names: Ephedrex, Asthamcure, Cofsedyl
  28. 28. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white crystalline powder. 2. It is having bitter taste. 3. It is odorless. 4. It is freely soluble in water. 5. It is miscible with alcohol, chloroform and benzene. 6. It is affected by light. Storage: It is stored in well closed air tight container at a cool lace away from direct sunlight.
  29. 29. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used as nasal decongestant. 2. It is used as bronchodilator in bronchial asthma. Official preparation: # Pseudoephedrine I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Pseudoephedrine elixir I.P, B.P Brand Names: Actifed
  30. 30. PHENYLEPHRINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is White crystalline powder. 2. It is odorless. 3. It is having bitter taste. 4. It soluble in water. 5. It affected by air & light. Storage: It is stored in well closed air tight light resistant containers at cool place away from direct sunlight.
  31. 31. PHENYLEPHRINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used locally in nasal congestion. 2. It is used as a mydriatic. 3. It is occasionally used in bronchial asthma in conjunction with isoprenaline. Official preparation: # Phenylephrine I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Phenylephrine eye drops I.P, B.P, # Phenylephrine injection I.P, B.P, Brand Names: Vicoryl, Codylex.
  32. 32. TERBUTALINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white crystalline powder. 2. It is odorless. 3. It is having biter taste. 4. It is soluble in water. 5. It affected by air & light. Storage: It is stored in well closed air tight light resistant containers at cool place away from direct sunlight.
  33. 33. TERBUTALINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. To relieve bronchial spasm in acute attacks of asthma. 2. It is used to treat chronic bronchitis. 3. It is used to treat cardiotoxic shock states, heart block and severe bradycardia. Official preparation: # Terbutaline I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Terbutaline Elixir I.P, B.P # Terbutaline Aerosol inhalation I.P, B.P Brand Names: Bricandyl
  34. 34. SALBUTAMOL ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white crystalline powder. 2. It is odorless. 3. It is tasteless. 4. It is sparingly soluble in water. 5. It is affected by light. Storage: It should be stored in well closed air tight resistant container at cool place away from direct sunlight.
  35. 35. SALBUTAMOL ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. To relieve bronchial spasm in acute attacks of asthma. 2. It is used to treat chronic bronchitis. 3. It is used to treat cardiotoxic shock states, heart block and severe bradycardia. 4. It is also used for prevention of premature labour. Official preparation: # Salbutamol I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Salbutamol tablets I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Salbutamol injection I.P, B.P, U.S.P # Salbutamol aerosol inhalation I.P, B.P, U.S.P Brand Names: Asthalin, Bronkolax, Albutamol.
  36. 36. Any Question??? Thank you...

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