2. Elton Mayo
•Born in December of 1880
•Australian psychologist and organizational theorist.
•Done experiments known as Hawthorne
3. Objective of the Hawthorne
To examine how different work conditions affected
4. Mayo and the Hawthorne Studies
•Beginning in 1927 and running through 1932
•Hawthorne Studies took place at the Western
Electric Company’s Chicago Plant.
•The experiment was divided into 4 parts
•Illumination Experiment (1924-1927).
•Relay Assembly Test Room Experiment (1927-
•Mass Interviewing Programme (1928-1930).
•Bank Wiring Test Room Experiment (1932).
5. Illumination Experiment
•This experiment was conducted to establish
relationship between output and illumination.
•When the intensity of light was increased, the
output also increased.
•The output showed an upward trend even when
the illumination was gradually brought down to the
•Therefore, it was concluded that there is no
consistent relationship between output of workers
and illumination in the factory.
6. Relay Assembly Test Room
•This experiment aims to find the effect of factors
like length of the working day, rest hours, and other
•Two groups of six female workers were selected.
•Changes were made in the working hours, rest
time, and lunch break.
•They were allowed to choose their own rest time
and to give suggestion.
7. Relay Assembly Test Room
•Productivity and morale increased considerably
during the period of the experiment.
•The researchers concluded that socio-
psychological factors such as feeling of being
important, recognition, attention, participation,
cohesive work-group, and non-directive supervision
held the key for higher productivity.
8. Mass Interviewing Programme
•The objective of this programme was to make a
systematic study of the employees attitudes which
would reveal the meaning which their “working
situation” has for them.
•21,000 employees were interviewed over a period
of 3 years with regard to their opinions on work,
working conditions and supervision.
• An indirect technique, where the interviewer
simply listened to what the workmen had to say.
• The findings confirmed the production increased if
the worker were allowed to talk freely about what
matters to them.
9. Bank Wiring Test Room Experiment
•A group of 14 male workers in a bank wiring room
were placed under observation for 6 months.
•Workers pay depend on the performance of a
group as a whole.
•The researcher thought that the efficient worker
would put pressure on the less efficient worker to
complete the work.
•It was founded that the group establish its own
standard of output and social pressure was used to
archive standard output.
•The psychological factors are responsible are
responsible for workers productivity and job
•Only good working condition are not enough to
•Informal relation among workers influence the
workers performance more than formal relations in