2. ● Discuss the different representations and conceptualizations of
the self from various disciplinal perspectives.
● Compare and contrast how the self has been represented across
different disciplines and perspectives
● Examine the different influences, factors and forces that shapes
● Demonstrate critical and reflective thought in analyzing the
development of one’s self and identity by developing a theory of
4. ASK YOURSELF
1.How would you characterized yourself?
2.What makes you stand out from the rest?
What makes your self special?
3.How is yourself connected to your body?
4.How is your self related to other selves?
5.What will happen to yourself after you die?
Philosophy is derived from
the Greek words “Philos”
and “Sophia” which
literally means “Love for
It is the study of acquiring
knowledge through rational
thinking and inquiries that
involves in answering
questions regarding the
nature and existence of man
and the world we live in.
7. socrates First Martyr of education,
knowledge and philosophy.
The philosophy of Socrates underlies in the
importance of the notion “knowing oneself”
for him, men’s goal in life is to obtain
happiness and such goal motivates us to act
towards or avoid things that could have
By fully knowing oneself a person
will be able to achieve happiness.
One must first have the humility to
acknowledge one’s ignorance so as to be able
to know what he is lacking and what he
needs to know.
9. Socratic method
Socratic Method is a dialogue between
teacher and students, instigated by the
continual probing questions of the teacher,
in a concerted effort to explore the
underlying beliefs that shape the students'
views and opinions.
10. - Every man is dualistic.
- Composed of body and soul.
- Body- imperfect and impermanent
- Soul- perfect and permanent
11. Socrates’ two (2) dichotomous realms
- changeable, transient and
- - the body belongs to this realm.
- Unchanging , eternal and immortal
- the soul belongs to this realm
Student of Socrates.
Plato is historically known to be the
father of the academy a place where
learning and sharing of knowledge
happens, that later became one of the
pillars and basis of what schools and
education is now in the present.
According to Plato, the world can only
be led by a Philosopher king, a person
who is virtuous as well as intelligent. A
person who is a follower of truth and
wisdom will not be tempted by vices
and will always be just.
15. Plato’s three parts of the soul
APPETITIVE SOUL it is the part of
the person that is driven by desire
and need to satisfy oneself.
16. Plato’s three parts of the soul
SPIRITED SOUL this part of the soul
can be attributed to the courageous
part of a person, one who wants to do
something or to right the wrongs that
19. St. augustine
A Saint and a Philosopher of the
He follows the belief that everything
is better if we devote ourselves in
mending our relationship with God.
20. St. augustine
He believes that our notion of our
lives and our idea of existence comes
from a higher form of sense in which
bodily senses may not perceive or
understand, and the more one doubts
and question his life means that
person is living.
21. Rene descartes
Rene Descartes is a French
Philosopher know to be the
father of modern philosophy
because of his radical use of
systematic and early scientific
method to aid his ideas and
22. Rene descartes
Methodical Doubt a
continuous process of
questioning what we perceive
and accepting the fact that
doubting, asking questions
are a part of ones’ existence.
23. Rene descartes
“Cogito Ergo Sum” means “I
think therefore I am”.
A person is comprised of mind
and body, the body that
perceives from the different
senses and the mind that
thinks and question or doubt
what the body has
25. John locke
He is an English Philosopher
and a Physician.
Father of Classical Liberalism
“ The Self is consciousness”
26. John locke
Tabula Rasa which means a Blank Slate.
An absence of preconceived ideas or
He believed that the
experiences and perceptions
of a person is important in
the establishment of who
that person can become.
27. John locke
To be able to be whom we want to
be, with the right simulations,
enough experiences, as well as
awareness that by primarily
knowing nothing will enable one to
be open to any kind of learning
and does not limit any possibilities
28. David hume
He is a Scottish Philosopher. He
focused his work in the field of
Empiricism, Skepticism, and
29. David hume
“there is no permanent self”
Our impressions of things based on
our experiences and on such
impressions, we can create our
ideas and knowledge which leads
to the argument that since our
ideas and impressions change, it
may improve or totally be replaced.
30. Immanuel kant
A German Philosopher that is
known for his works on
Empiricism and Rationalism.
“ We construct the
31. Immanuel kant
“To fully understand who we are, a
certain level of consciousness or
sense that uses our intuition which
synthesizes all the experiences,
impressions and perceptions of
ourselves will pave the way to
define and know who we really
32. Immanuel kant
Transcendental Apperception is an
essence of our consciousness that
provides basis for understanding
and establishing the notion of
“self” by synthesizing one’s
accumulation of experiences,
intuition and imagination goes
beyond what we experience but
still be able to become aware.
36. Aspects of personality
EGO sometimes known as the
police of the mediator between
ID and SUPER EGO. It
operates within boundaries of
reality; primary function is to
maintain the impulses of the
ID to an acceptable degree.
37. Three levels of consciousness
1. THE CONSCIOUS
2. PRE – CONSCIOUS
40. Gilbert ryle
The things that we do, how
we behave and react and all
other components like the
way we talk, walk, and look
is generally who we are as a
41. Paul churchland
He is a Canadian Philosopher
whose focus in on the idea
that people should improve
our association and use of
words in identifying the self.
“ The Self is the brain”
42. Paul churchland
opposes that people’s common
sense understanding of the mind
is false and that most of the
mental states that people
subscribe to, in turn, do not
actually exist, this idea also
applies on the understanding of
behavior and emotions.
44. Merleau – ponty
(mr – low- paan – tee)
Maurice Jean Jacques Merleau-
Ponty is a French philosopher
that is known for his works on
45. Merleau – ponty
(mr – low- paan – tee)
Maurice Merleau-Ponty believed the
physical body to be an important part of
what makes up the subjective self.
46. Merleau – ponty
The idea of Phenomenology of
Perception according to
Merleau-Ponty is divided into
47. Merleau – ponty
1. THE BODY that both receives
the experience as well as
integrates such experiences in
48. Merleau – ponty
2. THE PERCEIVED WORLD
which are the accumulation of
the perception as integrated by
the experiences of the body.
49. Merleau – ponty
3. THE PEOPLE AND THE
WORLD that enable one to not
only be able to integrate the
other objects in the world but
also to be able to experience the
cultural aspect and relate to