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Electrospinning of nanofiber

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Electrospinning of nanofiber

  1. 1. ELECTROSPINNING OF NANOFIBERS Presented by: PREM KUMAR SR 4NI11ME088
  2. 2. OUTLINE: • Introduction • Background  Apparatus  Working principle  Variables  Fiber alignment  Applications • Future Research • Reference
  3. 3. Introduction • Nanofibers are created by a process called electrospinning. • Electrospinning is a major way to engineer (without self- assembly) nanostructures that vary in: ▫ Fiber Diameter ▫ Mesh Size ▫ Porosity ▫ Texture ▫ Pattern Formation Burger, Christian, et. al. Nanofibrous Materials and Their Applications. 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Taylor_cone_photo.jpg
  4. 4. An Example • Take the distance between the Earth and the Moon, L, to be 384,400 km. • It takes only x grams of a polymer fiber filament to make up this distance • ρ = 1 g cm-3 and the fiber diameter d = 2r = 100 nm • X = Vρ = πr2Lρ = π (50 nm)2 (380,000 km) (1 g cm-3 ) • ≈ 3 grams Burger, Christian, et. al. Nanofibrous Materials and Their Applications. 2006.
  5. 5. Electrospinning
  6. 6. Schematic Representation of the Reactive Electrospinning Apparatus • Fibers are irradiated with UV light during spinning in order to form crosslinked graft scaffolds
  7. 7. Electrospinning - Procedure • An electrostatic potential is applied between a spinneret and a collector • A fluid is slowly pumped through the spinneret. • The fluid is usually a solution where the solvent can evaporate during the spinning. • The droplet is held by its own surface tension at the spinneret tip, until it gets electrostatically charged. • The polymer fluid assumes a conical shape (Taylor cone). • When the surface tension of the fluid is overcome, the droplet becomes unstable, and a liquid jet is ejected Burger, Christian, et. al. Nanofibrous Materials and Their Applications. 2006.
  8. 8. Electrospinning Polymers • The small size between the fibers allows the capture of particles in the 100- to 300- nanometer range • That is the same size of viruses and bacteria • Used as air-filter: Airplanes, office, etc. Burger, Christian, et. al. Nanofibrous Materials and Their Applications. 2006. Polymer Solvent Concentration Potential Application Nylon 6,6 Formic Acid 10 wt% Protective Clothing Polyurethanes Dimethylformamide 10 wt% Protective Clothing Polycarbonate Dichloromethane 15 wt% Sensor, Filter Polylactic Acid Dichloromethane 14 wt% Drug Delivery System
  9. 9. Nanofibers have large surface area per gram
  10. 10. Electrospinning Variables Burger, Christian, et. al. Nanofibrous Materials and Their Applications. 2006.
  11. 11. Fibre alignment • A cylinder collector with high rotating speed • A thin wheel with sharp edge • An auxiliary electrode/electrical field
  12. 12. Applications Burger, Christian, et. al. Nanofibrous Materials and Their Applications. 2006.
  13. 13. Improvements and Further Research • Develop more precise electrospinning techniques ▫ Mechanisms of electrospinning  Growth rates  Bending Instability ▫ Producing nanofabrics with specific mechanical properties. ▫ Creating 3-dimensional shapes  Capable of being used in controlled release of drugs. Burger, Christian, et. al. Nanofibrous Materials and Their Applications. 2006.
  14. 14. Improvements and Further Research • Optimization of parameters ▫ Intrinsic properties of solution  Polarity, surface tension of solvent, MW of polymer, etc. • Safety ▫ Solvents  Dangerous to health and environment "Electrospin Nanofibers for Neural Tissue Engineering." http://www.rsc.org/ejga/NR/2010/b9nr00243j-ga.gif
  15. 15. References • [1] Abdel-Ghani MS, Davies GA. Simulation of non-woven fibre mats and the application to coalesces. Chemical Engineering Science 1985; 40(1):117–29. • [2] Adanur S, Liao T. Computer imulation of mechanical properties of nonwoven geotextiles in soil-fabric interaction. Textile Res J 1998; 68:155–62. • [3] Angadjivand SA, Schwartz MG, Eitzman PD, Jones ME. US patent, 6375886. 2002. • [4] Athreya SA, Martin DC. Impedance spectroscopy of protein polymer modified silicon micromachined probes. Sensors and Actuators a—Physical 1999; 72(3):203–16. • [5] Bognitzki M, Czado W, Frese T, Schaper A, Hellwig M, Steinhart M, et al. Nanostructured fibres via electrospinning. Adv Mater 2001; 13:70–2. • [6] Demir MM, Yilgor I, Yilgor E, Erman B. Electrospinning of polyurethane fibres. Polymer 2002; 43:3303–9.

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