3. What is Bank ?
A bank is a financial institution that
provides banking and other financial
services to their customers such as
accepting deposits and providing
4. What is Banking system ?
A banking system also referred as a
system provided by the bank which
offers cash management services for
Indian Banking System customers,
reporting the transactions of their
accounts and portfolios, through out
5. Need of the Banks
To provide the security to the
savings of customers.
To control the supply of money and
To set equal norms and conditions
(i.e. rate of interest, period of
lending etc.) to all types of
8. RBI- Reserve Bank Of India
Reserve Bank of India is the
Central Bank of our country. It was
established on 1st April 1935
RBI performs various
developmental and promotional
It has given wide powers to
supervise and control the banking
9. Scheduled banks
Banks that are included in the
second schedule of the Reserve
Bank of India Act,
o Such a bank becomes eligible for
debts/loans on bank rate from the
11. Commercial Banks
Commercial bank is an institution
that accepts deposit, makes
business loans and offer other
financial services to the customers
These institutions run to make
12. Public Sector Banks:
In Public Sector Banks the
majority stake is held by the
After the recent amalgamation of
smaller banks with larger banks,
there are 12 public sector banks in
India as of now.
An example of Public Sector Bank
is State Bank of India.
13. Private Sector Banks
Private Sector Banks are banks
where the major stakes in the
equity are owned by private
stakeholders or business houses.
A few major private sector banks in
India are HDFC Bank, Kotak
Mahindra Bank, ICICI Bank etc.
14. Foreign Bank
A Foreign Bank is a bank that has
its headquarters outside the country
but runs its offices as a private
entity at any other location outside
An example of Foreign Bank in
India is Citi Bank.
15. Regional Rural Banks
The aim of ensuring sufficient
institutional credit for agriculture
and other rural sectors.
RRBs are owned jointly by the
Government of India, the State
Government and Sponsor Banks.
An example of RRB in India is
Arunachal Pradesh Rural Bank.
16. Cooperative Bank
A Cooperative Bank is a financial
entity that belongs to its members,
who are also the owners as well as
the customers of their bank.
Cooperative banks are the primary
supporters of agricultural activities,
some small-scale industries and
18. Primary Functions of Banks
The bank collects deposits from the
public. These deposits can be of
different types, such as :-
19. Saving Deposits
• This type of deposits encourages saving
habit among the public.
• The rate of interest is low.
• Withdrawals of deposits are allowed
subject to certain restrictions.
• This account is suitable to salary and
20. Fixed Deposits
• Lump sum amount is deposited at
one time for a specific period.
• Higher rate of interest is paid, which
varies with the period of deposit.
• Withdrawals are not allowed before
the expiry of the period.
21. Current Deposits
• This type of account is operated by
• Withdrawals are freely allowed.
• No interest is paid.
• The account holders can get the
benefit of overdraft facility.
22. Recurring Deposits
• This type of account is operated by
salaried persons and petty traders.
• A certain sum of money is
periodically deposited into the bank.
• Withdrawals are permitted only
after the expiry of certain period.
• A higher rate of interest is paid.
23. Granting of Loans and Advances
The bank advances loans to the
business community and other
members of the public. The rate
charged is higher than what it pays on
deposits. The types of bank loans and
advances are :-
24. Secondary Functions of Banks
The bank acts as an agent of its
customers. The bank performs a
number of agency functions which
Transfer of Funds
Collection of Cheques
25. General Utility Functions
The bank also performs general utility
functions, such as :-
Underwriting of Shares
Dealing in Foreign Exchange
Social Welfare Programmes