To change is to move from the present to
the future, from known information to
relatively unknown information.
Therefore, change can be defined as ―to
make or become different, give or begin
to have a different form‖
• Involves planned and unplanned .
• Transformation in an organization.
• It is the movement from current stage to
some future and preferred stage.
• It is a continuous process.
Example of organizational
• Mission changes
• Strategic changes
• Operational changes (including Structural
• Technological changes
• Changing the attitudes and behaviors of
Two main approach to change in
• Top down change
• Bottom up change
Resistance to change
Resistance occurs when the change is not
interpreted well or understood. It is expected and
represents different interests within the
organization. The manager’s role is to clarify the
meaning of change. Resistance is a very real
and common issue that is faced by change
managers during the process of change.
Why change is resistance
• Dislike of change.
• Discomfort with uncertainty.
• Perceived negative effects of interests.
• Attachment to the organizational
• Lack of conviction that change is needed.
• Lack of clarity as to what is needed.
• Belief that the specific change being proposed
• Belief that the timing is wrong
• Excessive change
• Cumulative effects of other changes in one’s life
• Reaction to the experience of previous changes
• Disagreement with the way the change is being
RESISTANCE TO CHANGE-
CASE STUDY ON KODAK
• In 1880, after inventing and patenting a dry-
plate formula and a machine for preparing
large numbers of plates, George Eastman
founded the Eastman Kodak Company.
• By 1884 Kodak had become a household name
after he replaced glass photographic plates with
a roll of film.
• The product became user-friendly-―as
convenient as the pencil‖
• Eastman identified Kodak’s guiding principles as-mass
production at low cost, international distribution,
extensive advertising, customer focus and growth
through continuous research.
• With the advent of color technology, the success story
continued as the company invested heavily in R&D and
by 1963 Kodak had become the industry standard.
• Sales increased by launching into new product lines
such as cameras and medical imaging and graphical
• The company operates through three segments: The
Digital & Film Imaging segment provides consumer-
oriented traditional and digital products and
photographic services such as film, photofinishing
services & supplies and digital cameras.
• The Health Group segment provides analogue products
that include medical films, chemicals and processing
equipment, and services and digital products including
PACs, RIS, digital x-ray & output hardware supplies.
• The Graphic Communications segment provides inkjet
printers, high-speed production.
Failed Strategies and the
Death of Kodak
• Innovation failure
• A culture of complacency
• Shift to digital
• Ignored the trend
WHAT KODAK SHOULD HAVE DONE
• Break up the business and sell of the parts.
• Sell the whole print business like a fixed term
• License the brand or the technology.
• Leverage their distribution network and ignore
RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: A
CASE ON PETER PAN BUS LINES
• The company traces its history back to 1933
and since then it has undergone numerous
changes, big and small.
• Peter Pan Bus Lines has re-evaluated ways to
make sure that its passengers and employees
are safe and secured.. After the 9/11 bombing,
the company intensified its commitment to
safety and security.
ACTIVE RESISTANCE PASSIVE RESISTANCE
• Finding fault • Agreeing verbally but not
• Feigning ignorance
• Appealing to
fear • Withholding information
• Build Trust.
• Openly Communicate and Discuss Change.
• Involve the Employees.
• Provide Rewards and Incentives.
• Make sure that the Changes are Reasonable.
• Educate the Workforce.
• Provide Empathy and Support.
Case Study: Oti-Yeboah
Complex Limited (OYCL)
• Oti-Yeboah Complex Limited (OYCL) is situated
in Sunyani, and was incorporated as a Limited
Liability Company on 31st October, 1986.
• Till 2008, it was operating sawmill and
producing processed wood products
• From 2008 – 2010: from sawmilling to plywood
• Work processes of the organization
Employee resistance due to
• New roles
• Added responsibilities
• Fear of unknown and possible loss of job
Forms of Resistance
• Lockouts because of fear.
Consequence of resistance
• Production stoppages
• Paying labour for no job done.
• Education and communication
• Participation and involvement
• Facilitation and support
• Negotiation and agreement
Case Study: Acquisition of
PETROM by OMV
• Petrom, the largest oil and gas producer in
South Eastern Europe, With activities in the
business segments of Exploration and
Production, Refining, Marketing as well as Gas,
was the market leader in Romania.
• In December 2004, the company was acquired
by the multinational company OMV Austria.
• The company received the position of regional
centre for Southeast Europe within OMV Group
THE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
• set up of regional centers for leadership
• new management structure formation
• centralization of all activities
• Close-down unprofitable objectives
• Outsource activities
• implement a new ERP system
• Reshape the Corporate Center project
SYMPTOMS OF RESISTANCE
• Resign or Accept early retirement
CAUSES OF RESISTANCE
• Different assessments
• Misunderstanding and lack of trust
• Wrong methods
• Inertia and low tolerance for change
―It is not the strongest of the species that
survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one
most responsive to change‖- Charles Darwin
―It’s always going to be continuous
improvement. We will never declare victory‖-
Richard Clark, CEO of Merck.
The natural tendency—a critical survival
mechanism—is to avoid similar dangers
creates resistance to organizational change.
Human emotions loss, anger and fear are the
driving forces to resistance.
Questions arise how do people
respond to change?
Few examples of changes &
Changes and their effects in overseas organizations.
• Thomas Alva Edison was forced to step down by
investor Henry Villard in 1893 from Edison’s own
company for his adversity to change attitude though he
was innovator, entrepreneur, and businessman.
• Arcelor-Mittal: M & A, resistance from shareholders.
• UK companies are not eager to run their Indian BPO’s
and already has started shifting their customer support
operations to UK.
Few examples of changes &
Changes and their effects in Indian organizations.
• Political unrest by allies and opposition for diesel prices hike
and regulation on LPG cylinder distribution.
• FDI in single and multi-brand retail created country wide
protest last year, even its going now.
• Cancellation of Niyamgiri Bauxite mining project for the
safeguard of local tribal people.
• TATA Motors shifted their NANO factory to Sanand, Gujarat
on the face of resistance by local farmers from Singur, WB,
• Bank employees went on strike for two days in the month of
August ’12 to protest higher management decisions.
Protest from oppositions parties
against diesel price hike
Manifestation against change is more
or less same around the World
Positive effects of changes
• When good, well known, charming person replaces
your peevish boss in the office employees become
happy and productivity goes high.
• In case of less employees requirement; if the
employees are transferred to other functional area
under the same organization than lay off by the
organization; change is positive for the employees.
• If new safety-security policy for the employees is
reinforced in the organization employees welcome
• Question lies here how do the
managements try to mitigate these
Parece que tem um bloqueador de anúncios ativo. Ao listar o SlideShare no seu bloqueador de anúncios, está a apoiar a nossa comunidade de criadores de conteúdo.
Atualizámos a nossa política de privacidade.
Atualizámos a nossa política de privacidade de modo a estarmos em conformidade com os regulamentos de privacidade em constante mutação a nível mundial e para lhe fornecer uma visão sobre as formas limitadas de utilização dos seus dados.
Pode ler os detalhes abaixo. Ao aceitar, está a concordar com a política de privacidade atualizada.