GPCRs are the most dynamic and most abundant all the receptors. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily comprises the largest and most diverse group of proteins in mammals. GPCRs are responsible for every aspect of human biology from vision, taste, sense of smell, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous functions, metabolism, and immune regulation to reproduction. GPCRs interact with a number of ligands ranging from photons, ions, amino acids, odorants, pheromones, eicosanoids, neurotransmitters, peptides, proteins, and hormones.
Nevertheless, for the majority of GPCRs, the identity of their natural ligands is still unknown, hence remain orphan receptors.
The simple dogma that underpins much of our current understanding of GPCRs, namely,
one GPCR gene− one GPCR protein− one functional GPCR− one G protein −one response
is showing distinct signs of wear.