• They are light and strong.
• They are cheap.
• Easy to assemble at the construction site.
• The openings in the web simplify the work of the installer and
the electrician, since taking pipes across beams presents no
problems. After all, the web of the beam already has many wide
openings by nature.
• ceiling systems, can also be installed easily. And castellated
beams are ELEGANT.
Most architects rate the aesthetic value of a castellated beam
• A lattice girder is a girder where the flanges are connected by
a lattice web.
• A truss is essentially a triangulated system of (usually) straight
interconnected structural elements; it is sometimes also referred
to as an open web girder. The individual elements are
connected at nodes; the connections are often assumed to be
nominally pinned. The external forces applied to the system and
the reactions at the supports are generally applied at the nodes.
When all the members and applied forces are in a same plane,
the system is a plane or 2D truss.
TYPE OF TRUSS
• Pitched roof trusses.
• Parallel chord trusses.
• Trapezoidal trusses.
• Long span
• Reduced deflection (compared to plain members)
• Opportunity to support considerable loads.
• A usually curved structure forming the upper edge of an open
space and supporting the weight
above it, as in a bridge or doorway.
• A structure, such as a freestanding monument, shaped like an i
• A curve with the ends down and the middle up: the arch of a
TYPE OF ARCHES
• Parabolic arch
• Unsymmetrical arch
• Semi circular arch
• Segmental arch
• Three hinged arch
• Two hinged arch
• Fixed arch
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