2. A good bread should be judged by its
volume, bloom, shape, colour, texture,
sheen, moistness and flavour. In general,
one should examine the external area and
the internal (crumb) area of the bread
3. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF FAULTS IN BREAD CAN BE GROUPED
INTO FIVE MAIN CATEGORIES:
Defective or inappropriate ingredients
Poor dough development and maturity
Incorrectly adjusted or poorly maintained
Poor handling after baking.
4. IDEAL CHARCTERISTICS FOR A LOAF OF BREAD
Even top with slightly rounded corners
Smooth thin crust, with no holes, streaks,
cracks or wrinkles
Uniform golden brown crust; rim of crust is
Fine crumb, uniform cell structure, thin cell
walls, texture soft to touch
5. TO UNDERSTAND BREAD FAULTS FIRST WE NEED TO
UNDERSTAND WHAT IS MEANT BY THE TERM “GOOD BREAD”
1. Volume – it has to be considered with the relation to its
weight (we can say specific volume). Too much volume
will make the bread stale or crumbly where as less
volume will turn the bread less flavoured and heavy.
6. 2. Bloom of crust/shine – this is a really delicate quality of
bread. a dull bread will reduce the eye appeal of bread
and an artificially shined bread will clearly indicated
presence of chemical in bread which again can be
repulsive for the guests.
7. 3. Colour of crust & crumb – crust colour supposed to be
attractive golden brown. Preferred crumb colours are like
white or light brownish according to the grade of wheat.
8. 4. Texture & structure – crumb texture has to be light, soft,
fluffy & consists of small even gas pocket networks
(gluten networks). Any unusual hole, damages in crumb
should be avoided. Similarly a smooth, even crust is
desired in good bread.
9. 5. Shape – symmetry in shapes is a
characteristic of good quality bread.
10. 6. Moistness – quality of bread is judged by
the amount of moisture present in bread
11. 7. Flavor – taste of any bakery product could be fully
appreciated only when it is accompanied by matching
flavour. A number of acids, bi-products and alcohols are
responsible to produce right flavour for bread. These
products are generally produced during fermentation only.
So it is very important to give proper fermentation time to
get good breads.
12. 8. Oven break – when open top bread is getting baked, then upper and
side surface crust forms earlier than the bottom surface. At that
stage gas that has produced inside the crumb escapes out through
the part where the crust yet to form (or you can say weaker part).
Escaping of gas also can create some openings which technically
13. Dough temperature :
Lean dough is usually baked at 218°C to 232°C (425°F to
450°F), while rich dough is usually baked
at 176°C to 190°C (350°F to 375°F). Rich dough is
baked at lower temperatures than lean dough so that the
baking process is more gradual and the surface of the
dough doesn't brown before the interior has set.
14. BAKING TEMPERATURE :
Generally, leaner breads (made with flour, water, and yeast)
are baked at 400° to 425°. Richer breads (made with more
fat and eggs) are baked at lower temperatures. Breads
made with less than 1/2 cup sugar are generally baked
at 375° and bread with more are baked at 350°. A loaf of
bread can bake from 25 to 45 minutes
15. END AND PRODUCT FAULTS:
Loaf too small
Dough too stiff because too much flour during
mixing or kneading; dough should be tacky
after mixing, smooth after kneading
Too much salt
Not enough yeast or starter
Bread rose at too cool a dough mixture to
allow yeast development
Too short a rise
Dough not kneaded after the last rise and
before forming the loaf
Oven temperature was too high.
16. Bread did not rise
Proof the yeast before using.
Check the proper water temperature
before dissolving the yeast.
Salt added directly to the yeast inhibits or
Dough too stiff because too much flour
during mixing or kneading; dough should
be tacky after mixing, smooth after
17. Sour flavor, strong yeast odor
Over-risen bread dough. Stop the rising
when the dough has almost doubled in
size (use finger-top test).
Rising temperature too high so bread rose
too quickly. Keep rising temperature at 75
- 85 degrees F.
Not kneading enough.
Too much yeast.
18. Odd, uneven or poor shape
Forcing dough when shaping. Let dough
rest for 10 minutes for easier
Incorrect bread pan size.
Insufficient kneading and/or rising time.
Loaf was improperly or poorly shaped.
Bread in the wrong position in the oven.
Next time place a single loaf in the center
of the oven for even heat distribution. Do
not crowd the oven.
19. Mushroomed, with a deep indentation
around the bottom (Loaf broke away from
the bottom crust)
Too much dough into too small a pan
Putting a free-form loaf into an oven that was too
hot at first, causing the bottom to cook too fast and
A free-form loaf spread too much as it was
Dough was too soft; Free-form loaves must
be quite firm when shaped.
Dough not contained; Use a ring to contain
the dough, or let it rise in a basket.
20. Crust cracked on top
Too much flour used during kneading and
shaping. Lightly dust countertop with pinches of
flour before kneading. Do not use an excessive
amount when shaping.
Bread sough or loaf collapses
Dough was over risen and collapses; You
can knead, reform, and re-rise the loaf.
During baking, the loaf collapses. Oven
temperature that's too low. This means the
dough rises to its maximum, then
collapses before it gets hot enough to set.
Or, dough could have been over-risen.
21. Flat top
Too short kneading period
Allowed dough to rise too long before baking
Crust separates from bread
Dough drying out and forming a crust during rising;
Grease surface and cover dough with plastic wrap
Poorly formed loaf, allowing oven heat to cause
instant aeration when put in the oven.
Too stiff dough
Insufficient rising time
Freezing bread to store it for a while.
22. Thick crust
Kneading problems. When finished
kneading, dough should be ‘tacky’, not dry.
Bread formed a crust as it rose; oil
outside bread dough and cover with plastic
wrap. Do not let over rise.
Oven temperature too low
Bread over baked.
23. Tough crust
Use the flour called for in the recipe
Not enough kneading
Bread didn't rise long enough
Baked too long.
Bread did not brown on sides
Use light colored (not shiny), NOT nonstick heavy
baking pans; shiny pans reflect heat, causing
Next time remove the bread from the pan and
place it on the rack or tiles in the warm oven to
brown and crisp the bottom and sides, turning the
loaves once, before cooling. (Also, do not ever
wrap loaves in plastic before they are thoroughly
cooled. This will soften the crust, and can promote
24. Gummy Crumb (Insides)
Oven too hot at beginning; If the crust
browns too early, the loaf can't expand to
its maximum volume. This interferes with
the inner texture of the bread.
If it's taken from the oven too soon; just
because the outside looks done, and the
baking is actually incomplete, the inner
crumb will be gummy and lacking in flavor.
The doneness test will help.
25. "Blisters" on the loaf's top crust, and
possibly cracking between the crust
and the sidewalls.
Excessively high baking temperatures
cause blisters. Maybe your oven
temperature is "off" or the recipe calls for
baking temperatures that are too high. The
norm is 400 degrees F for lean dough, and
a slightly lower 350 degrees F for sweet
Use only enough flour to handle dough.
Avoid too much flour on board when
kneading first time.
Dough too stiff.
Insufficient rising period.
Too much fat
Too little sugar.
Dough temperature during mixing and
rising was too high (so the yeast ate all the
sugar before baking, not allowing enough
for caramelization during the baking
Oven temperature was too low.
27. Dark crumb
Too cool an oven
Using dark pans; Use light colored (not shiny), NOT
nonstick heavy baking pans; shiny pans reflect heat,
causing insufficient browning
Poor mixing of dough
Dough drying out before shaping; keep lightly greased
and covered with plastic wrap when not in use.
Weak flour (lacking in gluten strength); Use the flour
called for in the recipe.
28. Coarse texture
Low-grade flour); Use the flour called for in the recipe.
Baking temperature too low.
Dough too soft.
Temperature of dough during mixing and rising was too high.
Rising time too long.
Large holes (This is an advantage with certain loaves)
Poor kneading, causing bubbles of gas to be distributed unevenly.
Small, hard lumps in your bread slice
Dough was not mixed sufficiently
Dough got too stiff to handle.
Circular streaks in your slices
When rolling and pinching of the dough when you formed the loaf,
and your probably pinched the dough too vigorously.