Cakes and pastries are the most important
product of bakery and confectionery.
Most of the cakes and pastries that are
patented, were made in old hotels and pastry
shops, are known as classical cakes.
Nowadays, with more and more experimenting
chefs around, it is very common to see a fusion
of flavors form around the world like a French
cream cake flavored with lemon grass from
This category of cakes is known as
4. When a small piece of cake is individually
garnished and served, it can be sold as a
The pastries can be layered separately to from
various shapes such as circles, rectangles and
With different kinds of moulds available in
the market one can also make different
dimensional shape other than three such as
pyramids, cones etc.
When cakes are prepared in bite sized, they
are often referred to as petits four glacés,
which is a generic title that covers all small bite
5. Petits fours glacés are served with coffee
after meal, particularly for special functions,
A cake in commercial terminology refers to a
cake made from flour, sugar, fat, and eggs.
It may also contain milk, baking powder, fruits,
A cake is usually heavier than sponge.
However, ‘cakes’ have a broader
interpretation that include gateau (French) and
These are made of layers of sponge,
meringues, creams, and pastries.
6. A cake generally takes its name from its
main filling and flavor, such as lemon
cream gateaux, pineapple gateaux, fresh
strawberry gateaux etc.
The base can be either a sponge or thin
layers of flaky pastry, or other ingredients
such as crushed biscuits.
Sponge cakes are so called because their
texture resembles a sponge with well-
9. Require for air incorporation, texture, flavor etc.
When using eggs in cake preparation, eggs
should be warmed either by placing the
eggs in hot water or by warming them along
with the weighted sugar with gentle heat over a
The reason for doing this is to produce strong
whisked foam which has the stability to
withstand the additional mixing of other
If the foam loses its incorporated air, the
result will be a heavier cake.
Warming prevents the curdling of mixture
10. Eggs can be separated and the white
whisked separately to increase the lightness
of the cake.
When preparing a sponge batter, use castor
sugar because it readily dissolves in the batter.
12. All cakes of a light nature need a weaker soft
flour (one with low gluten) to obtain a more
If this type of flour is not available, all-
purpose flour can be used with the addition of
some corn flour to make it softer.
Usually 20 percent of the corn flour is added.
14. This is used to aerate the cake.
Make sure that it is weighted correctly and
sieved several times with the flour –even
This help to ensure the cake is not over or
under aerated and distribution is even
Cake mixtures should be cooked immediately
or the gases emitted from baking powder will
start to develop and break out (escape) of
Baking powder is a mixture of baking soda and
a dry acid, such as cream of tartar, and
The use of butter is recommended.
For creaming, butter should be soft, not oily
Amount of fat that is added to a sponge batter
will determine its texture of sponge.
More the fat, heavier will be the sponge.
17. Commercially prepared stabilizer help keep
to batter from breaking down,
thus forming a perfect, light emulsion.
It is available in powder forms or even gel
These types of cake batters have a different
This recipe involves putting everything
together into mixing bowl along with warm
water and whisking the entire thing to a
stable emulsion, which can be held for long
duration of time.
19. Many other type of ingredients can be added
to the sponge mixes, depending upon the
usage that the sponge will be put to.
For example, if the sponge is being made for
chocolate cake then it is advisable to
substitute 20 percent of the flour with cocoa
powder to give a dark rich chocolate flavored
For a coffee flavored cake, a paste of coffee
with water can be used.
For honey and almond cake one could use
flaked almonds and honey and so on.
The aims of mixing cake batters are to
combine all ingredients into a smooth
uniform, stable emulsion, i.e. water in fat.
It may seem very easy but the process requires
a thorough understanding of the principles
involved in making a sponge.
In rush hour- if sugar and egg creamed too
fast than sponge may be heavy.
Very less air is incorporated.
21. Combining of Ingredients
Careful attention has to be given to the mixing
The sponge mixture has to form a uniform
emulsion, so that the water is held in
suspension surrounded by fat and other
ingredients in the batter.
A batter can curdle if the mixture changes to fat
in water, with small particles of fat surrounded
Curdling can occur due to the following
22. The quantity of butter should be measured
accurately in the given recipe, so as the formal
has a balance of both fat and water. Whole
eggs, if ever used, will help the batter hold the
liquids in the mixture.
Ingredients should not be too cold; a
temperature of 21 ͦ C will enable an emulsion to
Mixing of ingredients in the first step too quickly
will not be able to incorporate a good quantity of
air into the batter.
Adding of liquid too quickly may also cause the
batter to curdle hence, they have to be added in
23. Grease the mould or tin prior.
Thin lay of flour and fat is made- grease first
and sprinkle flour.
Parchment paper (Parchment paper are
cellulose-based papers that are used in baking
as a disposable non-stick surface).
24. Formation of air cells
Formation of air cells in a batter is great
importance since they give the sponge its
texture and also act as a leavening agent.
The air trapped in the batter expands when
subjected to heat and this acts as a natural
leavener giving the sponge a good raise even if
no chemical agent is used.
Correct temperature of ingredients and a
suitable mixing are vital for the formation of
good air cells in the batter.
In the case of foam cake (type of cake with little
fat), the egg and sugar mixture should be
25. Whipping should be done at a high speed first,
then at a moderate speed to retain the formation
of air cells.
Another important principle in sponge making is
the texture of the sponge.
The development of gluten in the batter is
responsible for the texture of the end product.
A very little amount of gluten is required in cake
making; hence weak flour will be a better
In some sponge recipe, corn starch replaces
some of the flour requirement, thereby reducing
the gluten content even more.
On the other hand, certain rich fruit cakes
27. Since the amount of mixing affects the
gluten, the flour in the recipe is always added
towards the end of the mixing process after all
the ingredients have been added, thus ensuring
that there is very little development of gluten.
If batter is mixed for too long after the
addition of flour, then the cake is likely to be
28. Formula and balance
Ingredients and quantities can be changed only
to a certain extent in a given recipe.
A formula in which the ingredients fall within
these limits (Qty and ingredients exactly as per
recipe) is said to be balance.
For the purpose of balancing ingredients
can be classified into the following four
29. Tougheners: They provide structure, for
example, flour, eggs (white and yolk).
(Reaction of white part of egg (protein) is to
toughen the flour where as yolk (fat) soften the
Tenderizers: They provide softness or
shortening of protein fibers, for examples
sugar, butter and chemical leavener.
Driers: These are the ingredients that absorb
moisture, for example, flours and starches,
cocoa powder, and milk powder, etc.
Moisteners: They provide moisture to the
batter, for example, water, milk, liquid sugar, egg
30. The formula (recipe) would be balanced if
tougheners equal tenderizer, and driers equal
In other words a balance has to be maintained
between the given ingredients.
A common practice is balancing a formula is to
decide the flour and sugar ratio, then balance
the rest of the ingredients against this
combination as follows:
31. If liquid is increased, reduce the eggs and the
shortening. (solid fat made form vegetable oil
soyabean which shorten gluten of wheat)
If eggs are increased, increase the
If extra milk powder is added as enrichment,
add an equal weight of water.
If large quantities of moist ingredients such
as apple sauce, mashed bananas are added,
then the batter may require an increase in the
quantity of the flour and eggs.
The points to be considered while baking and
cooling the sponges are as follows:
Preheat the oven. The sponge needs to be
given instant shock of heat as this will help
create the oven spring (Brust/ evaporate of gas
pocket after few minutes of heat applied in
Cold oven will result in dry and crumbly
Make sure that the oven shelves
(surface/rack/tray) are even.
The cake batter is very soft and if the shelves
are uneven, the batter will tend to flow with
33. While thick will cook, the thin might burn or
Do not let pans (mould), tin tray, etc touch
There should be an even circulation of air, as
it creates humidity, which helps to bake the
products with uniform color.
Bake at correct temperature.
Baking at low temperature will give dry and
pale cakes, and baking at high temperature
will color the cake too fast result in burning it.
34. Do not open the oven door and disturb the
sponge, until it has finished raisining and is
Opening of the door of an oven might result
in a collapse of sponge, as when the oven is
opened, the steam tends to come out of the
oven with a force thereby creating vacuum in
the oven, which results in the collapse of the
35. Test for Doneness
The sponge will be springy; the centre of the
sponge on the top will spring back lightly.
A cake tester or a wooden skewer/ toothpick
when inserted into the centre of the sponge
should come out clean.
Cooling and removing from pan/mould
Cool the sponge cake for 15 minutes in the
And then turn out when slightly warm.
If removed when hot they will break.
36. Place the sponge onto cooling rack for proper
circulation of air.
If not cooled on the cooling racks, the
moisture will accumulate in the base resulting
in a soggy cake.
41. Fruit cake is a sweet cake made with chopped
candied fruit (also known as crystallized fruit,
Whole fruit, smaller pieces of fruit, or pieces of
peel, are placed in heated sugar syrup, which
absorbs the moisture from within the fruit and
eventually preserves it) and or dried nuts, and
spices and occasionally soaked in spirits.
It is mainly made of flour, egg, baking powder,
sugar, nuts, candied fruits, spirit (opt).
A cake that simply has fruit in it as an
ingredient can also be called a fruit cake.
It may be in different shape and because of its
rich nature it is most often consume on its
43. A butter cake is a cake in which one of the
main ingredients is butter, hence the
Butter cake is baked with basic ingredients:
butter, sugar, eggs, flour, and leavening
agents such as baking powder or baking
It is considered as one of the quintessential
(main/prime) cakes in American baking.
Butter cake originated from the
English pound cake, which traditionally used
equal amounts of butter, flour, sugar, and
eggs to bake a heavy, rich cake.
45. Traditionally made with a pound (0.4535 kg) of
each of four ingredients: flour, butter, eggs,
However, any cake made with a 1:1:1:1 ratio,
by weight, of flour, butter, eggs, and sugar may
also be called a pound cake, as it yields the
Generally baked in either a loaf pan or
a Bundt mold (ring mould),
And served either dusted with powdered
sugar, lightly glazed, or sometimes with a coat
47. Sponge cakes are usually made with eggs,
flour, and sugar and the texture of the baked
product is light and airy.
As it resembles the texture of a sponge, it is
A sponge cake can be of various types and
the method of preparation differs from each
The basic recipe for all sponge cake include
eggs, flour, and sugar, and sometimes fat, it
is method of folding, that gives a different
texture to each sponge.
49. Unlike other cakes, the baked cheese cake is
not layered nor use flour for filling.
In this cake, ring is lined with crust or base
made form crushed cookies.
The cheese is creamed along with sugar, eggs
The prepared mixture (batter) is then put into
the mould and baked in the water bath. (baking
tray poured in with water for steam production)
The cake is served dusted with castor sugar.
Sometimes it is spread with castor sugar and
caramelized under radiated heat.
51. Cakes are synonymous to birthdays.
It is customary for people to celebrate their
birthdays by cutting cakes with their name
piped on them.
Various kinds of flavors and kinds of cake
can be made on this occasion.
Sometimes cakes are made based on the
theme of the event, or on popular cartoons,
Such cakes, known as ornamental cakes,
can be made in various shapes matching the
theme of the event.
Some ornamental cakes can be in the shape
56. Name suggests, these cakes are made on
It is customary to have these cakes in three or
more tiers, each of which represent the strong
base for the new relationship, the wonderful
present and the bright future of the bride and
1.top tier, or layer, of the wedding cake
symbolizes the couple
2.the middle tier (or tiers) symbolize the child or
children they hope to welcome to the family.
3. the bottom tier symbolizes the couple as a
57. The layering and coating of the cake is known
as icing (is a sweet, often creamy glaze made
of sugar with a liquid, such as water or milk, that
is often enriched with ingredients like butter, egg
whites, cream cheese, or flavorings).
Nowadays, these cakes can be made from
various bases and flavors but in olden times,
dark rich plum cake (refers to dry fruits or
some time fresh or dry plum itself) were used
for making wedding cakes.
Size of cake depends on gathering- if the
number of people attending a wedding
function is very small, then the middle and
58. Festive Cake
This is the category of specialty cakes that
are made on festive occasions, like hot cross
buns are made on Easter, Christmas cake,
Pumpkin cake on Halloween etc.
62. Sunken cake are concerned with recipe
Too much baking powder
Too much sugar (this will be apparent if
the cake also has a crisp, sugary crust)
Too much Fat/Margarine
Flour too soft
Cake was knocked in the oven before it
66. The flour is too soft.
The batter is too soft.
The batter is too lightly aerated (more
air) (either from over mixing or from too
much baking powder)
Fruit is wet and therefore heavy
67. Cakes too small
Insufficient aeration (from under mixing or not
enough baking powder)
The batter is too stiff
Flour is too strong
Batter toughened (from over mixing or from
Oven too hot (which leads to the cake being
'gripped' and stunted)
73. Cake staling quickly
Oven too cold so the cakes are in the oven
too long, and the crumb dries out
Too much baking powder
Not enough liquid in the batter to keep the
Staling is a chemical and physical process in
bread and other foods that reduces their
palatability. Stale bread is dry and leathery.
75. Too much sugar
Not enough liquid (to dissolve the sugar)
Sugar too coarse (to be fully dissolved)
Cakes standing too long before going
in the oven. (This allows moisture to
escape from the top of the cake, and
leaves sugar residue in the batter.)
77. Fat and water do not mix normally
Cake batter which contains fat and water
(in the eggs)
There is a natural tendency for curdling,
the breaking down of the emulsion of fat
If a cake batter curdles, then the cakes
are often still acceptable, though
smaller than usual.
Curdling will occur if:
78. The eggs are added too soon before the fat
and sugar have been creamed.
The eggs are added cold, as this causes the
fat to harden again, and accept no more
Egg temperature should be approximately 72F
The eggs are added in too large amounts.
Eggs should always be added slowly and
Notas do Editor
Picture doesnot actully match but it means sugar not melting during baking and appear on top.